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Midterm (ch. 1-6)

Cyanosis usually is the result of a reduction in _____.
melanin
hemoglobin
oxygen levels
the number of blood vessels

oxygen levels

It is the body's __________________ glands that respond to higher body temperature and release water to the skin surface.
sebaceous
eccrine
apocrine
ceruminous

eccrine

The amount of blood supply is directly proportional to the ability of a cell to divide and remain vital.

true

The process of keratinization is directly related to the waterproofing function of the dermis.

true

A decubitus ulcer is a bedsore caused by an infectious agent or toxic organism.

false

Increased exposure to sunlight actually maintains healthy skin and reduces the effects of aging.

false

The dermis of the face is attached to skeletal muscle fibers that cause the skin to move during facial gestures.

true

The _____ separates the epidermis from the dermis.

basement membrane

The youngest cells would be found in the stratum _____.

basale

Cells that surround melanocytes may contain more melanin than the melanocytes because of the process of _____.

cytocrine excretion

The _____ structures are associated with detecting deep pressure within the skin.

Pacinian corpuscles

The main tissue in the dermis is _____.

irregular dense connective tissue

The part of the hair from the surface into the dermis is the _____.

root

The darkness of hair is due mainly to _____.

melanin concentration

The following belong together except which one?

alopecia

Modified sweat glands, called __________________ glands, secrete wax in the ear canal.

ceruminous

Choose the response that the body employs to raise body temperature only when the others listed have failed.
-constricted skin blood vessels
-sweat glands inactivated
-slight skeletal muscle contraction
-full body shivering

-full body shivering

A(n) _________________ is the transplanting of one's own skin from an unburned region of the body to a burned area.

autograft

The strength of the dermis would mainly be due to _____.

presence of collagen fibers

Where is the greatest amount of keratin found?

stratum corneum

The stratum basale is also called the stratum _____.

germinativum

Calluses are thickened areas that are formed in response to a/an _____.

increase in friction or pressure

The pigment producing melanocytes are found in the _____ layer.

basale

What is the major factor that protects skin from the damaging effects of sunlight?

the presence of melanin

Most of the sensory fibers and structures are located in the _____ region.

dermis

Tactile corpuscles respond to a stimulus of _____.

light touch

The subcutaneous layer can also be referred to as the _____.

hypodermis

The presence of _____ is an indication of being in the hypodermis.

adipose tissue

What is the main factor in preserving body heat?

the presence of adipose

A group of cells that surrounds the developing hair is called the _____.

follicle

The color of red hair is due to _____.

trichosiderin

Goose bumps in the skin are caused by contraction of the _____ in response to cold or emotions.

arrector pili muscles

The following relate to sebaceous glands except which one?

use merocrine methods

Hair and fingernails are derived from the _____ cells.

epidermal

The most active growing region of the nails is the _____.

lunula

Sweat glands can also be called _____ glands.

sudoriferous

What actually controls and maintains body temperature?

the hypothalamus

The most easily regulated loss of heat through the skin is by _____.

evaporation

The greatest source of body heat is through _____.

contraction of the skeletal muscle

The pigment _____ found in vegetables can impart a yellow or orange color to the skin.

carotene

A _____ is a procedure that uses skin from a deceased person to treat a burned area.

homograft

The functions of the skin include all of these except __________________.

taking in nutrients

The protective dead layer of cells of the outer epidermis is called the _______________.

stratum corneum

Melanocytes lie within the _________________ of the skin.

stratum basale and upper dermis

Which of these phrases does not characterize the dermis?

thinner in areas receiving greater friction and use

Adipose tissue is most abundant in the ________________ layer under the skin.

subcutaneous

Hairs arise from which layer of the skin?

stratum basale of the epidermis

Within nails, the most rapidly dividing cells can be found in the __________________.

lunula

Heat loss occurs from the body by each of these methods except __________________.

cellular respiration

What is one important function for melanin?

absorb harmful radiation

The yellowish color of some person's skin is due to _____.

carotene

The epidermal ridges or fingerprints are probably caused by the _____.

dermal papillae

The part of the hair below the surface of the skin is called the _____.

root

Dark-skinned persons have a higher probability of developing melanomas because they have more melanocytes.

False

Persons who remain indoors frequently may have a higher risk of developing a malignant melanoma than those who are highly exposed to sunlight because of their work or other reasons.

True

Transdermal medications are delivered by inserting a hypodermic needle into the subcutaneous region.

False

The papillary layer of the dermis partially explains the presence of fingerprints in the epidermis.

True

Hair is actually a structure comprised mainly of keratin.

True

Excessive hair growth on regions of the body is alopecia.

False

Albinism is a condition resulting from the genetic inability to produce melanin throughout the body.

True

Sebaceous glands are always associated with each hair follicle.

false

The nail plate is the part of the fingernail which lies on top of the nail bed.

true

The eccrine sweat glands are located in the axillary areas and respond to emotional upsets.

true

As one ages, the ability to sweat increases as evidenced by increased moisture on the skin of the elderly.

false

The elimination of sweat can have an excretory as well as temperature regulating function.

true

The application of an ice pack is an example of temperature control by means of convection.

false

In order to conserve heat, blood vessels in the skin constrict.

true

Heat exhaustion occurs when the body undergoes excessive sweating on hot, humid days.

false

Regardless of race, all persons, except albinos, have the same relative numbers of melanocytes.

true

Antipyretic drugs are used to treat pyrexia, which is an abnormal drop in body temperature.

false

The white blood cells secrete interleukins, which are known to block the causes of fevers.

false

The skin is one of the more versatile organs of the body.

true

Epidermal cells usually grow and divide from the upper layers of the skin and migrate towards the dermis.

false

The epidermis contains a greater variety of cell types in comparison to the dermis.

false

The dermis has a rich blood supply while the epidermis is totally devoid of blood vessels.

true

There are usually no blood vessels in the epidermis.

true

The cells in the epidermis are only comprised of squamous epithelial cells.

false

The subcutaneous region has adipose cells that help insulate the body from heat as well as cold.

true

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