Language of Medicine Chapters 8 & 9

105 terms by Liebesabenteuer 

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adnexa

Accessory parts of the uterus; the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

amnion

Innermost membrane around the developing embryo.

areola

Dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple.

Bartholin glands

Small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice.

cervix

Lower, neck-like portion of the uterus.

chorion

Outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it is part of the placenta.

clitoris

Organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the urinary meatus.

coitus

Sexual intercourse; copulation.

corpus luteum

Empty graafian follicle that secretes estrogen and progesterone after release of the egg cell; literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus).

cul-de-sac

Region within the pelvis, midway between the rectum and the uterus.

embryo

Stage in development from fertilization of the ovum through the 2nd month of pregnancy.

endometrium

The inner mucous membrane lining the uterus.

estrogen

Hormone produced by the ovaries; responsible for female secondary sex characteristics and buildup of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle.

fallopian tubes

Ducts through which the egg travels into the uterus.

fertilization

Union of the sperm and ovum (fusion of the two nuclei occurs).

fetus

The embryo from the 3rd month (after 8 weeks) to birth.

fimbriae (plural)

Finger-like ends of the fallopian tubes.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; stimulates maturation of the ovum.

gamete

Sex cell; sperm or ovum.

genitalia

Reproductive organs; also called genitals.

gestation

Pregnancy.

gonads

Organs in the male and female that produce gametes;ovaries and testes.

graafian follicle

Developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary. Only about 400 of these sacs mature in a woman's lifetime.

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the mother's ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.

hymen

Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the vaginal orifice.

labia

Lips of the vagina; labia majora are the larger outermost lips, and the labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips.

lactiferous ducts

Tubes that carry milk within the breast.

luteinizing hormone (LH)

Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; promotes ovulation.

menarche

The beginning of the first menstrual period during puberty.

menopause

The gradual ending of menstrual function; climacteric.

menstruation

The monthly shedding of the uterine lining; menses means month.

myometrium

The muscle layer lining the uterus.

orifice

An opening.

ovaries

Organs in the female lower abdomen that produce ova and hormones; female gonads, the ovaries are almond-shaped and about the size of large walnuts.

ovulation

Release of the ovum from the ovary.

ovum (plural: ova)

Egg cell; female gamete.

papilla

A small nipple-shaped projection or elevation. The mammary papilla is the nipple of the breast.

parturition

Act of giving birth.

perineum

In females, the area between the anus and the vagina.

placenta

Vascular organ that develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall and serves as a communication between the maternal and the fetal blood-streams.

progesterone

Hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women. Progesterone meanse hormone (-one) for (pro-) pregnancy (gester).

puberty

Beginning of the fertile period when gametes are produced and secondary sex characteristics appear.

uterine serosa

Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.

uterus

Womb; muscular organ in which the embryo develops. The upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus (body); and the lower, neck portion is the cervix.

vagina

A tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body.

vulva

External genitalia of the fmale; includes the labia, hymen, and clitoris.

carcinoma of the cervix

Malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer).

cervicitis

Inflammation of the cervix.

carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)

Malignant tumor of the uterus (inner lining).

endometriosis

Endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine.

fibroids

Benign tumors in the uterus.

ovarian carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma).

ovarian cysts

Collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary.

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Inflammation of the pelvic region; salpingitis.

carcinoma of the breast

Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts).

fibrocystic disease

Smll sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast.

abruptio placentae

Premature separation of the implanted placenta.

choriocarcinoma

Malignant tumor of the pregnant uterus.

ectopic pregnancy

Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.

placenta previa

Placental implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall.

preeclampsia

A condition that occurs during pregnancy or shortly after and is marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema. If seizures occur, the condition is known as eclampsia or toxemia.

Down syndrome

Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy-21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes.

erythroblastosis fetalis

Hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.

hyaline membrane disease

Respiratory problem primarily in the premature neonate; lack of protein in the lining of the lung tissue causes collapse of the lungs. Also known as respiratory distress syndrome.

hydrocephalus

Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.

kernicterus

High levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream of a neonate; leads to brain damage and mental retardation.

pyloric stenosis

Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.

bulbourethral glands

Two exocrine glands near the male urethra.

Cowper glands

Bulbourethral glands.

ductus deferens

Vas deferens.

ejaculation

Ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra.

ejaculatory duct

Tube formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicles, opening into the urethra at the prostate gland.

epididymis (plural: epididymides)

Tube located on top of each testis; it carries and stores the sperm cells before they enter the vas deferens. Didymos is a Greek work for testis.

flagellum

Hair-like projections on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move).

fraternal twins

Twins resulting from two separate, concurrent fertilizations.

glans penis

Sensitive tip of the penis.

identical twins

Twins resulting from the separation of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos.

interstitial cells of the testis

Cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone. A pituitary gland hormone (luteinizing hormone [LH]) stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.

parenchymal tissue (parenchyma)

Tissue composed of the essential cells of any organ. In the testes, parenchymal tissue includes seminiferous tubules that produce sperm.

perineum

Area between the anus and scrotum in the male.

prepuce (foreskin)

Skin covering the tip of the penis.

prostate gland

Gland at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.

scrotum

External sac (double pouch) that contains the testes.

semen

Spermatazoa and fluid (prostatic and other glandular secretions).

seminal vesicles

Glands that secrete a fluid into the vas deferens.

seminiferous tubules

Narrow, coiled tubules in the testes that produce sperm.

spermatazoon (plural: spermatazoa)

Sperm cell.

sterilization

Any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction; vasectomy and salpingectomy are examples.

stroma

Supportive, connective tissue of an organ.

testis (plural: testes)

Male gonad that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone; testicle.

testosterone

Hormone secreted by the interstitical tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.

vas deferens

Narrow tube (one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra.

carcinoma of the testes

Malignant tumor of the testicles.

cryptorchism; cryptorchidism

Undescended testicles.

hydrocele

Sac of clear fluid (-cele means swelling or protrusion) in the scrotum.

testicular torsion

Twisting of the spermatic cord.

varicocele

Enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle.

carcinoma of the prostate

Malignant tumor of the prostate gland.

prostatic hyperplasia

Benign growth of cells (glandular and stromal tissue) within the prostate gland; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

hypospadias; hypospadia

Congenitcal opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.

phimosis

Narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis; phim/o means to muzzle.

chlamydial infection

Bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis) invade the urethra and reproductive tract of men and the vagina and cervix of women.

gonorrhea

Inflammation of the genital tract mucous membranes, caused by infection with gonococci (berry-shaped bacteria).

herpes genitalis

Infectino of the skin and mucosa of the genitals, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV).

syphilis

Chronic STD infectious disease caused by a spriochete (spiral-shaped bacterium); it can affect any organ of the body.

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