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auditory

means pertaining to the sense of hearing

acoustic

means relating to sound or hearing

pinna

the external portion of the ear; "auricle"

external auditory canal

transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle of the ear

cerumen

secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal, "earwax"

middle ear

located between outer ear and inner ear, transmits sound across this space

tympanic membrane

located between the outer and middle ear, "eardrum"

mastoid bone cells

hallow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone

auditory ossicles

three small bones found in the middle ear

malleus

known as the hammer

incus

known as the anvil

stapes

known as stirrup

eustachian tubes

narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat

inner ear

contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance

oval window

located under the base of the stapes, the membrane that separates the middle ear from inner ear

cochlea

the snail-shaped, fluid filled structure that forms the inner ear

cochlear duct

a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it

organ of Corti

receives vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers

semicircular canals

contains the liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells

acoustic nerves

transmit this information to the brain, and the brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of the body to ensure that equilibrium is maintained

air conduction

the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna

bone conduction

occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles

sensorineural conduction

occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear

audiologist

specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments

impacted cerumen

an accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal

otalgia

pain in the ear; "earache"

ot

mean ear

otitis

any inflammation of the ear

otomycosis

a fungal infection of the external auditory canal; "swimmer's ear"

otopyorrhea

the flow of pus from the ear

otorrhagia

bleeding from the ear

barotrauma

pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in the mountains, scuba diving, or when the eustachian tube is blocked

eustachitis

inflammation of the eustachian tube

mastoiditis

an inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells

infectious myringitis

a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum

otosclerosis

the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in a conductive hearing loss

myring

means eardrum

patulous eustachian tube

dissension of the eustachian tube

otitis media

an inflammation of the middle ear

acute otitis media

usually associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children

serous otitis media

a fluid buildup in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tube

acute purulent otitis media

a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection

labyrinthitis

an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness

vertigo

a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting

meniere's syndrome

a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss, and tinnitus

tinnitus

a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears

deafness

the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear

presbycusis

a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages

-cusis

means hearing

conductive hearing loss

occurs when the sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid filled inner ear

sensorineural hearing loss

develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged

noise-induced hearing loss

a type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot, or to moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time

audiological evaluation

the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness

audiometry

the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity

hertz

a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is

decibel

commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound

monaural testing

involves testing with one ear

binaural testing

involves testing with both ears

tympanometry

the use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear

otoplasty

the surgical repair of the pinna of the ear

mastoidectomy

the surgical removal of mastoid cells

myringotomy

the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes

tympanostomy tubes

tiny ventilating tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections; "pediatric ear tubes"

tympanoplasty

the surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation of to restore function

stapedectomy

the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear

fenestration

a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing

fenestra

means window

hearing aid

an external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds

labyrinthectomy

the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth

labyrinthotomy

a surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow the pressure to equalize

cochlear implant

an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech

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