Unit 5- Assessment of Speech Production

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3.8% of 6 year olds

prevalence of speech disorders

precise placement, sequencing, timing of articulators, management of breath stream, velopharyngeal management, phonatory control

articulation is a complex act requiring:

neurophysiologic problems, peripheral anatomic problems, hearing loss, intellectual disability, linguistic, cultural, and familial factors

the factors of speech disorders

dysarthria, MS, Parkinson's, ALS, Wilson's disease, stroke victims

examples of neurophysiologic problems

39%

what percentage of children with an articulation disorder have a family member with the same disorder

cleft palate, short/ malformed velum, ankyloglossia, severe dental malocclusions, poor nasal patency

examples of peripheral anatomic problems

70

articulation disorders are more prevalent with children with IQ scores less than what number?

0db-25db

normal range of hearing

16db-25db

slight hearing loss

26db-40db

mild hearing loss

41db-70db

moderate hearing loss

71db-90db

severe hearing loss

91db+

profound hearing loss

reduced speech rate, slow articulatory transitions, pauses, poor pitch control, problems with vocal quality (horse, deaf-sounding speech, hypo-hypernasality), problems with high frequency consonants /s/, distorted vowels, weak production of final consonants, and inappropriate stress patterns

problems individual with hearing loss have with speech production

organic articulation disorder

hard to remediate except for cleft palate

functional articulation disorder

no specific peripheral, organic, neurophysiological pathology explains them- due to faulty learning

distortion

recognized for what it is-may not affect intelligibility very much (ie lisp)

substitution

one sound is substituted for another sound

omission

leave a sound out completely

refers to dynamic location in the vocal tract where the sound is being produced

place of articulation

stops, fricatives, glides, affricates, nasal, liquids

the manners of productions (6)

whether vocal chords are vibrating during sound production

voicing

syllable structure processes, substitution processes, assimilation

what are the three types of phonological processes

affects syllable structure of the word (final consonant deletion, reduction, cluster reduction)

syllable structure processes

substituting one sound with another (stopping, backing, deaffrication, etc)

substitution processes

when one sound in a word affects another sound in the word (labial assimilation)

assimilation

40-80%

what percentage of kids have expressive/ receptive language disorders that coexist with phonological disorders?

10-40%

what percentage of kids will have language comprehension problems (children tend to understand better than they are able to express)?

cerebral palsy

a congenital non-progressive neuromotor disorder resulting from brain damage acquired before, during, or shortly after birth

quadriplegial

paralysis involving trunk and all four extremities

diplegia

paralysis of corresponding extremities on both sides of the body

paraplegia

paralysis of lower trunk and both lower extremities

hemiplegia

paralysis of one side of the body

monoplegia

paralysis of a single extremity

spastic

CP involving increased muscle tone, exaggerated stretch reflex- slow stretch that suddenly releases, and slow, effortful, jerky, voluntary movements. caused by lesions in pyramidal system

pyramidal system, 50%

where does injury of spastic CP individual happen and what percentage of CP individuals are spastic?

athetoid

CP involving slow, writhing, involuntary movements when volitional actions are attempted, ATNR- atonic Neck reflex- hand raises and neck turns with it. caused by lesions in extrapyramidal system

extrapyramidal system, 10%

where is lesion of athetoid CP individuals and what is the percentage?

ataxic

CP involving disturbed equilibrium resulting in balance problems. Reflexes and muscle tone are normal. Caused by cerebellar lesion

cerebellum, 5-10%

where does lesion of ataxic CP occur and what is percentage?

rigid

CP involving simultaneous contraction of all muscle groups, producing constant muscle tone. Muscles all contract simultaneously, person curls up in ball. caused by damage to higher motor control centers of rain (basal ganglia)

basal ganglia, 1%

where does lesion of rigid CP occur and what is its percentage?

mixed

CP involving a combination of more than one type. most common is spasticathenoid. cause by lesions in extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems

extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems, 30%

where does lesion of a mixed CP occur and what is its percentage?

spasticathenoid

what is the most frequent mixed CP that occurs?

consonants less precise, hypernasality, slurred speech, problems with tongue tip sounds, problems sustaining sounds

articulatory problems of CP

hypernasality due to dysfunction of velopharyngeal port

resonatory problems of CP

tight sound

phonatory problems of CP

rapid breathing rate

respiratory problems of CP

monotonous speech, flow is no smooth due to phonatory or resonatory problems

prosodic problems of CP

childhood apraxia of speech

articulatory motor programming disorder; no consistent of significant brain lesion involved; speech production skills lag behind language comprehension and cognition; highly inconsistent sound errors; difficulty with purposeful movements of the articulators

/g/ in measure, meidal /h, w, j/, final /th/

which consonants aren't tested in the goldman fristoe?

Templin Darley Test of Articulation

1969; has 57 cards for use with small children; each card has 2,3, or 4 pictures to elicit target words; lists of 141 words and sentences for older subjects; 4 page articulation test form; overlays for administering the identified separate units; a very comprehensive articulation test

tests vocalic /r/, tests clusters; can assess and view units easily; contains materials for use with adults; tests vowels; has screening test; inexpensive forms

strengths to the templin-darley test of articulation

takes more time to administer, test materials not as easy to use; outdated pictures; difficult to score

weaknesses to templin-darley test of articulation

Fisher-Logemann Test of Articulation Competence

1971; consists of 109 picture stimuli on 35 hand-board cards; bound folio to permit easy turning; 11 selected cards having marginal tabs for easy locations; the folio converts into a sturdy easel which will sit upright on a table; size of folio permits its storage in a file cabinet drawer; has double-sided record form (protocol)

tests vowels, assesses 23 blends, assesses dipthongs, record form arrangement fo consonant phonemes according to place, manner, and voicing, best and worst context

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