3.8% of 6 year olds
prevalence of speech disorders
precise placement, sequencing, timing of articulators, management of breath stream, velopharyngeal management, phonatory control
articulation is a complex act requiring:
neurophysiologic problems, peripheral anatomic problems, hearing loss, intellectual disability, linguistic, cultural, and familial factors
the factors of speech disorders
dysarthria, MS, Parkinson's, ALS, Wilson's disease, stroke victims
examples of neurophysiologic problems
what percentage of children with an articulation disorder have a family member with the same disorder
cleft palate, short/ malformed velum, ankyloglossia, severe dental malocclusions, poor nasal patency
examples of peripheral anatomic problems
articulation disorders are more prevalent with children with IQ scores less than what number?
normal range of hearing
slight hearing loss
mild hearing loss
moderate hearing loss
severe hearing loss
profound hearing loss
reduced speech rate, slow articulatory transitions, pauses, poor pitch control, problems with vocal quality (horse, deaf-sounding speech, hypo-hypernasality), problems with high frequency consonants /s/, distorted vowels, weak production of final consonants, and inappropriate stress patterns
problems individual with hearing loss have with speech production
organic articulation disorder
hard to remediate except for cleft palate
functional articulation disorder
no specific peripheral, organic, neurophysiological pathology explains them- due to faulty learning
recognized for what it is-may not affect intelligibility very much (ie lisp)
one sound is substituted for another sound
leave a sound out completely
refers to dynamic location in the vocal tract where the sound is being produced
place of articulation
stops, fricatives, glides, affricates, nasal, liquids
the manners of productions (6)
whether vocal chords are vibrating during sound production
syllable structure processes, substitution processes, assimilation
what are the three types of phonological processes
affects syllable structure of the word (final consonant deletion, reduction, cluster reduction)
syllable structure processes
substituting one sound with another (stopping, backing, deaffrication, etc)
when one sound in a word affects another sound in the word (labial assimilation)
what percentage of kids have expressive/ receptive language disorders that coexist with phonological disorders?
what percentage of kids will have language comprehension problems (children tend to understand better than they are able to express)?
a congenital non-progressive neuromotor disorder resulting from brain damage acquired before, during, or shortly after birth
paralysis involving trunk and all four extremities
paralysis of corresponding extremities on both sides of the body
paralysis of lower trunk and both lower extremities
paralysis of one side of the body
paralysis of a single extremity
CP involving increased muscle tone, exaggerated stretch reflex- slow stretch that suddenly releases, and slow, effortful, jerky, voluntary movements. caused by lesions in pyramidal system
pyramidal system, 50%
where does injury of spastic CP individual happen and what percentage of CP individuals are spastic?
CP involving slow, writhing, involuntary movements when volitional actions are attempted, ATNR- atonic Neck reflex- hand raises and neck turns with it. caused by lesions in extrapyramidal system
extrapyramidal system, 10%
where is lesion of athetoid CP individuals and what is the percentage?
CP involving disturbed equilibrium resulting in balance problems. Reflexes and muscle tone are normal. Caused by cerebellar lesion
where does lesion of ataxic CP occur and what is percentage?
CP involving simultaneous contraction of all muscle groups, producing constant muscle tone. Muscles all contract simultaneously, person curls up in ball. caused by damage to higher motor control centers of rain (basal ganglia)
basal ganglia, 1%
where does lesion of rigid CP occur and what is its percentage?
CP involving a combination of more than one type. most common is spasticathenoid. cause by lesions in extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems
extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems, 30%
where does lesion of a mixed CP occur and what is its percentage?
what is the most frequent mixed CP that occurs?
consonants less precise, hypernasality, slurred speech, problems with tongue tip sounds, problems sustaining sounds
articulatory problems of CP
hypernasality due to dysfunction of velopharyngeal port
resonatory problems of CP
phonatory problems of CP
rapid breathing rate
respiratory problems of CP
monotonous speech, flow is no smooth due to phonatory or resonatory problems
prosodic problems of CP
childhood apraxia of speech
articulatory motor programming disorder; no consistent of significant brain lesion involved; speech production skills lag behind language comprehension and cognition; highly inconsistent sound errors; difficulty with purposeful movements of the articulators
/g/ in measure, meidal /h, w, j/, final /th/
which consonants aren't tested in the goldman fristoe?
Templin Darley Test of Articulation
1969; has 57 cards for use with small children; each card has 2,3, or 4 pictures to elicit target words; lists of 141 words and sentences for older subjects; 4 page articulation test form; overlays for administering the identified separate units; a very comprehensive articulation test
tests vocalic /r/, tests clusters; can assess and view units easily; contains materials for use with adults; tests vowels; has screening test; inexpensive forms
strengths to the templin-darley test of articulation
takes more time to administer, test materials not as easy to use; outdated pictures; difficult to score
weaknesses to templin-darley test of articulation
Fisher-Logemann Test of Articulation Competence
1971; consists of 109 picture stimuli on 35 hand-board cards; bound folio to permit easy turning; 11 selected cards having marginal tabs for easy locations; the folio converts into a sturdy easel which will sit upright on a table; size of folio permits its storage in a file cabinet drawer; has double-sided record form (protocol)
tests vowels, assesses 23 blends, assesses dipthongs, record form arrangement fo consonant phonemes according to place, manner, and voicing, best and worst context