Social Studies 4th Grade

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4th Grade Vocabulary

Adapt

to change in order to survive

Agriculture

the business of growing crops and raising animals

Descend

to move or fall downward

Revolution

a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system

Independent

not under the control or in the power of another; able to act or be done as one wishes

Archaeologist

a social scientist who studies the past by looking at artifacts people have left behind

Artifacts

an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest

Assembly

a group of people gathered together in one place for a common purpose

Bill (mm)

a proposal for a new law

Border

a boundary line that separates two places

Budget

a plan for how you ill spend the money you expect to have

Canal

a ditch dug across land that often connects two waterways

Canyon

a deep, narrow valley with steep sides

Capital

a city where the government of a country or state is located

Cave

a natural underground hole

Cavern

A large cave

Citizen

a person who by law has a right to live in a community

Colony

a settlement that is ruled by another country

Conservation

the careful use of a resource

Constitution

the plan of government for the United States

Culture

a way of life shared by a group of people

Dam

a wall built across a river to stop the flow of water

Declaration of Independence

document declaring the United States free from Great Britain

Democracy

a form of government in which people vote for their leaders

Desert

an area of land that receives very little rain

Diverse

made up of different groups of people

Drought

a time when little or no rain falls

Economy

the way people in a community use resources to meet their needs and wants

Expedition

a journey with a purpose

Federal Government

our national government that deals with problems that affect the entire country

Fertilizer

a substance added to the soil to improve plant growth

Geography

the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries

Geyser

a spring that throws jets of heated water and stream into the air

Global

relating to the whole world

Habitat

the place where a type of animal typically lives in nature

History

the study of past events, particularly in human affairs

Hurricane

a storm with heavy rains and high winds

Immigrant

someone who comes from another place to live in a country

Industry

an organized economic activity connected with the production, manufacture, or construction of a particular product or range of products

Irrigation

a way to bring water to dry land, using water from another location

Legislate

make or enact laws

Latitude

the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator

Longitude

the angular distance of a place east or west of the meridian

Government

the action or manner of controlling or regulating a nation, organization, or people

Market

any place where economic activity occurs

Production

the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured

Mineral

a natural material found in rocks

Natural Resources

a resource supplied by nature

Pesticide

a substance used on crops to kill insects and other pests

Petroleum

a thick, black, oily liquid found underground

Physical Geography

features of land, water, and sky

Plantation

a large farm, usually worked by many people

Plateau

a high, flat landform that rises steeply from the land around it

Pollution

any substance that makes air, water, or soil dirty or unsafe to use

Population

all the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country

Population Density

a measure of the average number of people living in one unit of area

Distribution

the way in which something is shared out among a group or spread over an area

Rebellion

an armed fight against a government

Renewable Resource

something that renews itself, or re-grows, even as people use up the original supply of it

Republic

a type of government in which people choose leaders to act for them

Reservation

public land set aside by the government for use by American Indians

Reservoir

an area where water is stored for people's use

Scarcity

the idea that the things and resources people want and need are limited

Segregation

the separation of people because of race, religion, or gender

Self-Sufficient

doing everything necessary to take care of yourself on your own

Tax

the money that people and businesses pay to the government to support its functions

Technology

the use of tools and ideas to meet people's needs

Tornado

a violent windstorm whose center is a cloud in the shape of a funnel

Transportation Hub

a city that serves as a center for moving goods and people

Wage

a payment of money for work

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