Introduction To Veterinary Technology

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Classical Ethology

If a species has had a long history of experience with certain stimuli, especially those involving survival and reproduction, then to the extent that genes affect the ability to attend closely to such stimuli, natural selection leads to adaptations enhancing responsiveness to them.
The ethological approach asserting that
much of what animals know is instinctive or innate.

Sociobiology

Theorizes that complex social patterns arise, develop, and sometimes even disappear based on their survival value.

Canine Seperation Anxiety

Occurs when canines feel anxiety when seperated from owner.

Conflict Related Aggression

Occurs when an animal is exposed to an uncomfortable or uncertain stimulus or conflict.

Fear Induced Aggression

Occurs when an animal is in a position from which it can't escape.

Predatory Aggression

Aggression in which animals attacks and kills its prey.

Pain Induced Aggression

A defense reaction to pain, little to no warning.

Inter Male Aggression

Natural instinct between male cats and dogs to fight each other.

Territorial Aggression

Dogs tend to become aggressive towards humans not of their house hold; cats tend to become aggressive towards other cats in their territory.

Aversion Therapy

form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior

Avoidance Therapy

Involves the use of negative reinforcement to diminish a problem behavior. The goal is for the pet to link a the behavior with an unpleasant event and then avoid that unpleasant event. Example, if a dog barks excessively, then startling it with spray from a hose, but the dog shouldn't see the owner. This is used to to discourage the animal from displaying a particular behavior.

Habituation

a general accommodation to unchanging environmental conditions

Punishment

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

Counterconditioning

a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.

Desensitization

reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed

Environmental Modification

Any change to the environment an animal lives in.

What is the Vet Tech's role in resolving animal behavior problems?

Providing behavior counseling services to clients
demonstrates the practice's commitment to supporting the human-animal bond. Behavior modification programs are currently the best way to treat behavioral problems and teach pets new habits.

Explain the need for humane restraint of animals in a veterinary setting.

By handling and restraining animals properly, you
make everyone else's job possible. You also ensure that the animals don't escape or injure themselves, their handlers (including you), or their owners. Finally, you provide the physical reassurance that's one of the animal's main behavioral cues in an unfamiliar, potentially frightening environment.

Manual Restraint

Using your hands to hold the animal in the desired
position.

Since this method distresses animals the least, you'll want to use it whenever possible.

Mechanical Restraint

Employs such equipment as leashes,
collars, restraint bags, and poles.

These devices tend to upset
animals, so use them only when absolutely necessary.

Chemical Restraints

Sedatives, tranquilizers, and anesthetics.

Vets consider chemical restraint the least desirable method.

Standing Restraint

Vets often complete routine physical examinations
with the dog standing.

Place one hand in front of the dog's neck, place the other hand under the dog's abdomen just in front of its rear legs, gently pull the dog towards you until it's snug against your body.

Sitting Restraint

Appropriate for most routine injections and some minor technical procedures.

Place your arm around the dog's hindquarters, Gently tuck the dog into a sitting position, Place your other arm around the dog's neck so that its head rests in the crook of your elbow, Pull the dog snugly against your body.

Sternal Recumbency

Appropriate for most routine injections and some minor
technical procedures.

Place your arm around the dog's head so that it's
resting in the crook of your arm, Gently tuck the dog into a sitting position, Place weight over the front shoulders of the dog to get it to lie down, Place your arm over the back of the dog and pull the dog snugly against your body

Lateral Recumbency

also called reclining restraint.

place the dog on its side, Stand behind the dog so that the dog's spine is against the front of your body, Grasp the dog's forelegs with one hand, securing your grip by placing one finger between the legs, press down slightly with your forearm on the base of the dog's neck, . Use your other hand
to grasp the dog's rear legs,

Cephalic Vein

The vein along the front of the foreleg.

Saphenous Vein

The vein on the outer surface of a dogs hind leg.

Jugular Vein

The vein on the front of the neck.

Occluding

The act of blocking the vein's circulation by pressing on
it with your finger.

Allows you to easily see and feel the vein.

Allows enough blood to pool for venipuncture.

Restraint for Cephalic Venipuncture in Dogs

Stand at the side of the table, facing in the same
direction as the dog, Grasp the dog under its neck, Place your other arm across the dog's back and pull the dog snugly against your body, extend the same arm to grasp the dog's opposite forelimb at elbow level with your right hand, Hold the forelimb at the elbow and use your thumb to occlude the vein by pressing in and slightly to the side, Use your other fingers to prevent the dog from jerking its forelimb back when the needle is introduced.

Restraint for Saphenous Venipuncture in Dogs

Position the dog in lateral recumbency, Grasp the upper rear leg just below the knee so that the skin over the vein is pulled tight to occlude the vein and prevent it from rolling while venipuncture is being made,

Restraint for Jugular Venipuncture in Dogs

Stand alongside the dog and place your right hand
under its muzzle, Point the dog's head towards the ceiling,With your left hand, grasp the dog's front legs
just above the feet and hold them together, securing
your grip by placing a finger between them, Pull the feet slightly to align them with the dog's nose.

Cat Restraint for Physical Examination

Allow the cat to stand or sit on the table.
Place one hand on the cat's shoulders, Place the other hand on its hips, Gently press it down against the table.

Cat Restraint for Intramuscular Injection

Grasp the cat by the scruff with your right hand, Grasp its back feet with your left hand, placing one or two fingers between the feet, Lay the cat on its side with its back resting against your right forearm, extend the cat's body by stretching its legs back and its head forward.

Restraint for Cephalic Venipuncture in Cats

Grasp the cat's head firmly under the jaw with your right hand, Extend your left arm around the cat's body and grasp the cat's left leg around the elbow, Hold the forelimb at the elbow and use your thumb to occlude the vein by pressing in and slightly to the side.

Restraint for Jugular Venipuncture in Cats

Wrap a towel around the cat's rear legs to prevent it from scratching you, Place the cat on its sternum at the edge of the table, its forelegs extending off the table's edge, Stand alongside the cat, place one hand under its nose, and point its head towards the ceiling.With your other hand, grasp the cat's legs just above the feet, securing your grip by placing a finger between the feet. Pull the feet slightly to align them with the cat's nose.

Medial Femoral Vein

The vein on the inside of a cats rear leg

Restraint for Medial Femoral Venipuncture in Cats

Grasp the cat by the scruff with one hand, Grasp its back feet with your other hand, placing one or two fingers between the feet. Lay the cat on its side with its back resting against your forearm. Gently extend the cat's body by stretching its legs
back and its head forward. The upper hind leg is gently extended back to expose the medial femoral vein of the leg lying on the table. This vein must be held off once venipuncture has been completed to prevent a hematoma or
excessive bleeding from occurring.

The Fetal Hold

Grasping a cat by the scruff of the neck.

Tail Jacking

Tail jacking usually serves to distract the animal from procedures performed elsewhere on its body.
Grasp the tail with both hands nearest the cow's body. Lift the tail up gently but firmly, taking care to keep the tail in line with the spine and not deflected out to either side.

Tail Tying

Tail tying may also be necessary to prevent the animal from swinging its tail into your face as you work.
Locate the end of the last vertebra in the tail. At a spot about 18 inches from one end of the rope, lay the rope across the tail so that it lays over the end of the last vertebra. Fold the rest of the tail up and over the rope. Pass the short end of the rope behind the tail, making a long, sharp loop in the rope as you go. Bring the loop over the folded tail. Pass the loop through the rope that's looped under the tail. Pull the longer end of the rope to
tighten it. Use the longer end of the rope to tie the tail to the cattle's front leg or neck.

Casting Rope

Serves to place an animal on its side.
Place the rope across the animal's back so that its ends fall between the forelegs and cross under the sternum. Pull the ends up and cross them over the animals back. Let these ends drop down so that they fall near the animal's rear legs. Pass the ends of the rope through the animal's rear legs and pull. This will cause the animal to lay down. Use the rope to guide the animal into position on its side.

Restraining Adult Sheep

Most examinations and minor procedures can be performed with the sheep placed up on its rump.
Stand on the animal's side. Place one arm around the sheep's neck at the shoulder and with your other arm, reach over the animal and under its abdomen as far as possible, depending on the animal's size. Gently lift the sheep and tilt it back onto its rump. Stand directly behind the sheep so that its back rests against your legs. Tilt the sheep's body slightly back so that it's off balance.

Restraining a Goat for Exam and Venipuncture

You can keep a goat still for a routine physical examination by lifting one of its front legs. Most goats will remain calm in this position. Holding onto the goat's chin or beard may also help keep it in position for short periods of time.

Firm Restraint for Goats

Position yourself alongside the goat. Reach one arm over the goat's back and one arm over the goat's neck. Grasp the legs closest to your body and gently lift up. This will force the goat off balance and onto its side.

Hurdles

Flat shieldlike pieces of plastic or plywood about three feet square, to direct a group of pigs into an enclosure.

Pig Catcher

A long-handled, large clamp with a rope that holds the ends of the clamp shut. Apply the clamp to one of the pig's rear legs, then pull the rope to hold the clamp tight around the leg.

V-trough

Small pigs can be restrained on their backs in a V-shaped trough. The V-trough is usually made of plywood.
Lay the pig on its back in the trough. Attach a rope to one front leg. Pass the rope under the trough and tie it to the
other front leg. Repeat on the rear feet.

Snubbing Rope

A rope with a loop at one end, tied with a slip knot so that the loop can be tightened.
Place one end of the rope in front of the pig's snout. Wait for the pig to open its mouth. When the pig opens its mouth, slip the loop into its mouth and push the loop quickly up so that it rests just behind the tucks. Tighten the loop across the top of the pig's snout.

The Vet Techs Role in Physical Exam

Prior to the examination, the technician must gather and
prepare any supplies and equipment necessary to perform
the examination. Whether you perform the physical examination with the help of a veterinary assistant, or assist the veterinarian in performing the examination, you'll need to know the proper type and degree of restraint each species,procedure, and individual animal requires.

The Key Compents of a Good Medical History

Identifying the primary or presenting problem, Taking a medical history, Taking the environmental history, Reviewing the body systems.

Signalment

Includes the breed, gender, age, and reproductive status.

Integumentary System

The skin and attached structures, like hair.

Respiratory System

Takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.

Cardiovascular System

Circulates blood.

CNS

Carries nerve impulses to and from the brain.

Normal Temperature for a Dog

99.5-102.5

Normal Pulse Rate in a Young Dog

110-120

Normal Pulse Rate in an Adult Dog

60-120

Normal Resperation Rate in a Young Dog

20-25

Normal Resperation Rate in an Adult Dog

14-16

Normal Temperature for a Cat

100.5-102.5

Normal Pulse Rate in a Young Cat

130-140

Normal Pulse Rate in an Adult Cat

60-120

Normal Resperation Rate in a Young Cat

20-25

Normal Resperation Rate in an Adult Cat

14-16

Normal Temperature in a Horse

99-101

Normal Pulse Rate in a Young Horse

60-80

Normal Pulse Rate in an Adult Horse

30-50

Normal Resperation Rate in a Yong Horse

14-15

Noraml Resperation Rate in an Adult Horse

9-10

Normal Temperature in Cows

100-102

Normal Pulse Rate in Young Cows

80-120

Normal Pulse Rate in Adult Cows

70-80

Normal Resperation Rate in Young Cows

15-20

Normal Resperation Rate in Adult Cows

15-40

Turgor Pressure

Normal elasticity of the skin, used to measure dehydration.
0-1 seconds = less than 5%
2-4 seconds = 5-8%
5-10 seconds = 8-10%
10-30 seconds = 10-12%

Ausculation

the act of listening to sounds arising within organs (as the lungs or heart) as an aid to diagnosis and treatment.

Palpation

a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional).

Alopeica

Hair loss

Erythroderma

Redness of the skin

Papules

solid, elevated spot or area on the skin.

Cranial

Towards the head

Inguinal Region

Lowermost region of the abdomen on either side of the hypogastric region.

Rales

Crackeling or ratteling sounds during inhalation.

Capillary Refill Time

The time it takes for normal coloration to return to an animals gums.

Mitral Valve

Heart valve, left side of the thorax.

Aortic Valve

Heart valve, left side of the thorax.

Pulmonary Valve

Heart valve, left side of the thorax.

Tricuspid Valve

Heart valve, right side of the thorax.

Pulse Deficit

Any difference between the heart rate and the pulse rate.

Regions of the Abdomen

The Cranial third, the medial third, the caudal third.

The Cranial Third

First region of an animals abdomen, contains the liver, stomach, spleen and cranial two-thirds of the kidneys.

The Medial Third

Second region of an animals abdomen. Contains the caudal third of the kidneys, the small intestines and the uterus.

The Caudal Third

Third region on an animals abdomen. Contains the urinary bladder and the large intestines.

Submandibular Lymph Nodes

Located caudal to the mandible on each side of the jaw. Normally pea sized or smaller.

Lymph Nodes Examined by palpation

Prescuplar, axillary, inguinal, popliteal.

Ophthalmoscope

Used to examine the inner chamber of the eye.

Otoscope

Used to inspect the internal portions of the ear.

DHLP-PBC/FCP

a variety of the distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parvovirus vacince

FeLV

FelineLuekemia vacine

HW

Heartworm

S.O.A.P Format

Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Procedure or Plan.

Subjective Data

The reason the animal is being presented to the vet clinic and the observations of the animal and its condition that can't be quantified.

Objective Data

Data that can be quantified and measured.

The Assessment

Includes possible or probable explanations for the problem. Only to be filled out by the vet.

The Procedure or Plan

Outline the plan for treatment. Only to be filled out by the vet.

Vet Techs role in Client Education

You may need to explain to the client what the Vet is doing during the examination or follow up on the Vets instructions with suppllementary education.

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