National Education Technology Standards (NETS)
Benchmark technology skills created by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) for teachers (NETS-T), students (NETS-S), and educational administrators (NETS-A)
A handheld computer that is like a notebook computer but with fewer features; a small laptop or notebook computer designed primarily to access the Internet.
A contraction of Internet and etiquette, refers to guidelines for posting messages to online services (e.g., email or discussion boards) to demonstrate courtesy and regard for other users; rules for polite social behavior while communicating over a network
The new skills, strategies, and insights necessary to utilize the rapidly changing and emerging technologies in the world
On computer networks, a discussion group created by allowing users to post messages and read messages among themselves.
NIC (Network Interface Card)
Most network interface cards (or NIC) are internal, with the card fitting into an expansion slot in the computer to provide the connection between the network and the workstation. Nowadays, most laptop computers are purchased with a built-in network interface card that conforms to the WI-FI standards.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001
Federal law that put in place accountability measures of all U.S. students, teachers, and schools; requires schools to demonstrate adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward target goals, as demonstrated by test scores, attendance, and other quality indicators
Software that facilitates music making in the visual domain by allowing flexibility in music score and page setup, part extraction, text formatting, and other print-related issues
NTSC, PAL, SECAM
These are the three major standards worldwide. NTSC is the standard for video signals in the US, Japan and Canada. According to the NTSC standard, full-motion videos are digital video running at 30 fps. A full-motion video does not necessarily fill the screen. Instead, full-screen videos are digital video that fills the entire screen using 640 x 480 pixels for typical graphic. SECAM (Sequential Color with Memory) is the video format used mostly in France. PAL and SECAM both use 25 fps.
nutritional analysis program
Software that analyzes calorie intake and monitors portions of required food groups
A statement of what learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction, stated in terms of observable performances.
A belief system that views knowledge as objective truths that have been established by scientific observation and testing and have a real and separate existence outside human perception; instructional strategies based on objectivist learning theories (i.e., behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and information processing theories) hold that these objective truths must be transmitted through teacher-directed instructional methods and that learners must demonstrate their knowledge of them
People who believe that knowledge has a separate existence outside human perception and that it must be transmitted through directed instructional methods, based on behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and information processing theories
Classroom equipped with a single computer.
The practice of allocating a school computer for each student
Course of study or training generally delivered via the Internet.
Object-oriented programming systems, where each thing that one sees on the computer screen is treated as an object, and each object can have a programming code associated with it.
open source software
Computer software available online in which the source code is made available in the public domain and permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form
According to learning theorist B. E Skinner, a way of shaping human behavior in which the consequences of people's past actions can act as stimuli to shape future behaviors
Operating system (OS)
The master control program for a computer system; a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate with the software. An OS has three major functions: BIOS (or Basic Input/Output Systems), system resources, and networking. Without an OS, computers would be useless. The most popular OS for PCs are DOS (Disk Operating Systems), Mac OS, and Windows, but others are available, such as Linux.
optical character recognition (OCR)
Software that allows text to be scanned and placed in a word processing file
A type of instructional activity that helps students understand what they have previously learned, what they are currently learning, and what they will be learning in the future.
Software designed to prompt writers as they develop outlines to structure documents they plan to write
The hardware that receives and displays information coming from the computer; output Information that comes out of the computer.
A chunk of information routed across the Internet.
Page layout programs Page
enable users to format pages of text and graphics. Many word-processing systems support their own page layout functions, but professional page layout applications such as Adobe PageMaker and InDesign generally give users more control over fine points such as text flow, kerning, and positioning of graphics.
Paint and draw programs
The terms "paint" or "draw" have different meanings in computer applications. One major difference is in layering. Paint programs provide a single image layer, so that if new images are placed over other images, they replace the image data that they are over. Draw programs provide a stack of image layers, so that sliding an upper layer to one side can reveal image parts that were once covered.
Device that assists with analyzing and monitoring physical fitness levels by monitoring the number of steps one takes
A form of evaluation that involves asking a colleague to examine all or part of an instructional lesson and make suggestions for improvement.
A portion of the instructional objective that indicates what students will do to demonstrate what they have learned.
Any of various devices that connect to the computer, including input devices, output devices, and mass storage devices.
A computer intended for use by an individual.
Personal digital assistant (PDA)
A handheld mobile electronic device that provides users access to calendars, e-mail, contact information, and even some applications programs such as word processing and spreadsheets.
E-mails that falsely claim to be a legitimate business or user in order to glean private information to be used for identity theft
A CD format developed by Kodak that can store high-quality images made from 35-millimeter photographic negatives or slides.
Like ASP.NET, an application that must be installed on a server to be used in web development; originally stood for personal home page and is a scripting language that generates HTML source code to create dynamic webpages
An image format developed originally for use on Macintosh computers
An evaluation of instruction conducted before implementing the instruction.
A single dot, or picture element, on the computer screen.
Plagiarism detection services
Companies and organizations (e.g., Turnitin.com) that offer services to help identify if, and to what degree, potential plagiarism has occurred within written documents.
The first phase of the Plan, Implement, Evaluate model. Focus is on the design of instructional materials based on the learners, content, and context.
A program that adds a specific feature or service to a computer system; many types of audio and video messages are played through plug-ins; works with a Web browser to perform tasks that the browser cannot perform on its own; a type of program that integrates with a software application to extend its capability. One example of a plug-in is Abode PDF Reader plug-in for Internet browsers.
A digital media file, most often audio, distributed via the Internet for playback on a portable media player, such as Apple's iPod, or a computer; a term that combines "iPod" and "broadcast" and coined by British journalist Ben Hammersley in 2005; originally meant digitized audio files saved in a format that can be shared over the Internet for playback on the computer or personal media devices; now can also mean posting video on a site
portable document format (PDF)
Format that allows documents to be seen and sent with all the formatting and design elements (e.g., margins, graphics) of the original document without requiring the desktop publishing or word processing software used to create it
A collection of work products that demonstrate achievement of skills over time; for students, collection arranged so that they and others can see how their skills have developed and progressed
An assessment of students' knowledge or skills given after instruction.
The knowledge and skills students should have at the beginning of a lesson.
An instructional method involving a one-way communication controlled by a source that relates, dramatizes, or otherwise disseminates information to learners, and includes no immediate response from, or interaction with, learners (e.g., a lecture or speech).
Computer software designed for the production and display of computer text and images, intended to replace the functions typically associated with the slide projector and overhead projector; type of software that allows a display of information organized as a set of slides
Preinstructional evaluation of students' knowledge and/or skills to determine students' level of performance before instruction.
A form of evaluation that involves reading, viewing, and/or working through specific instructional materials prior to using them.
In traditional color theory, red, yellow and blue are the 3 pigment colors that can not be mixed or formed by any combination of other colors. All other colors are derived from these 3 hues
Nonprojected drawings, charts, graphs, posters, and cartoons that are commonly found in printed sources such as textbooks, reference materials, newspapers, and periodicals.
Software that ensures an application's formatting commands are translated correctly into a printer providing printed output from the computer. Most operating systems provide a number of different printer drivers to support different models of printers.
More and more scientific probeware is used in classrooms or labs, with a desktop, laptop, or handheld computer to collect and analyze data from science experiments. Probeware measures phenomena such as temperature, light, light, and voltage, distance, motion, pH and force. With probeware, a portable data collecting system now puts the power of a complete laboratory at students' fingertips and replaces time-consuming data-collection tasks with hands-on scientific experience.
problem-based learning (PBL)
learning organized around the investigation and resolution of an authentic, ill-structured problem
A complex intellectual function where the learner uses high-order cognitive processes to solve problems and issues that require using a combination of rules; an instructional method in which learners use previously mastered skills to reach resolution of challenging problems. Based on the scientific method of inquiry, it typically involves the following five steps: (1) defining the problem and all major components, (2) formulating hypotheses, (3) collecting and analyzing data, (4) deriving conclusions/solutions, and (5) verifying conclusions/solutions.
Computer applications designed to foster students' higher-order thinking skills, such as logical thinking, reasoning, pattern recognition, and use of strategies; instructional software function that either teaches specific steps for solving certain problems (e.g., math word problems)or helps the student learn general problem-solving behaviors for a class of problems; it teaches specific steps for solving certain problems. It also helps students to learn general problem-solving skills, which is a relatively sophisticated mental ability that is difficult to learn.
The "brain" of the computer that controls the functions of the rest of the system and manipulates information in various ways.
Also known as software tools, productivity software includes any software that can be used as a tool to produce documents, spreadsheets, a database, or other products. MS Word, MS Excel, and MS Access are common productivity software packages used in schools.
Techniques for training and instruction based on learning theorist B. F. Skinner's reinforcement principles
A set of instructions that can be assembled, according to particular rules and syntax, to create a working computer program.
A project manager's roles and responsibilities include: reporting to the supervisors, organizing the team members, providing project management leadership for the overall project, tracking and monitoring project budgets, deliverables and milestones, and scheduling meetings to review status of work.
A drawing, chart, graph, and so on that is presented in a projected fashion (e.g., overhead transparencies, projected PowerPoint slides).
The prototype of a product gives the design staff and the client an early "head's up" to the final project, and helps to identify any unexpected issues. After reading the storyboard, the multimedia design team creates a prototype to demonstrate how the learner will move through and interact with the content, and how the program will look. Most project prototypes contain at least the entry page, and the main menu page for the proposed project. A design prototype should also specify how the navigation system works and looks. After seeing the design, project team members may return to the storyboard to reshape your ideas.
Materials (e.g., book, song, artwork) that are not protected by intellectual property laws (e.g., copyright) and may be freely copied and distributed without first getting permission.
Software tool that automatically formats and creates crossword puzzles, word search puzzles, and similar game-like activities, based on content entered by a user
QuickResponse (QR) code
A two-dimensional, square-shaped code that may be scanned using a QR code-scanning app on a smartphone. When scanned, the code sends the user to a web site with information, materials, or data.
QuickTime' movie format (.mov)
Video sequences that may beviewed on a computer screen by a program designed by Apple Computer Company (i.e., QuickTime); A cross-platform multimedia authoring technology developed by Apple Computer. QuickTime files (which carry the extension .mov) combine sound, text, animation, and video. Some products in the QuickTime line include the free QuickTime Player; QuickTime Pro, a media authoring program; and QuickTime Streaming Server, which delivers streaming media over the Web.
QuickTime VR Authoring Studio
Software that creates a type of virtual reality (VR) environment by using a series of photographs taken at 360 degrees around a pivotal point and "stitching" them together into a seamless panorama view
Traditional typewriter-like keyboard, so named becauseof the first six letters in the first line of a typewriter keyboard
radio frequency identification (RFID)
An electronic monitoring system that tracks the location of a person or object with an embedded computer chip and can update information on the chip; RFID devices are being field-tested to track student attendance, increase school security, and monitor the location of library resources
Random-access memory (RAM)
The computer's working memory. In a personal computer, RAM provides a temporary work space that allows the user to change its contents, as needed, to perform different tasks. Common RAM is volatile, which means that its contents disappear as soon as the power is turned off (or otherwise interrupted).
Read-only memory (ROM)
The permanent memory that is built into the computer at the factory, referred to as "read only" because the computer can read the information that is stored there but cannot change that stored information. ROM contains the basic instructions the computer needs to operate.
Actual materials, not models or simulations.
A collection of related fields that is treated as a logical unit in a database; several related fields (e.g., all the information on one person)
Feedback used to recognize good performance and encourage continued effort from students. Takes the form of verbal praise or a "pat on the back."
A type of computer database that permits the interrelation of information across more than one datafile.
Term coined by Everett Rogers to refer to the perception by potential adopters of how much better an innovative method or resource is than the old one; one of five factors that largely determines whether or not an innovation is adopted
Relative and absolute addresses
Relative address occurs when a formula is copied down a range of cells, it automatically is adjusted to be relative to the cells it refers to. Absolute address or absolute positioning occurs when it is necessary to keep a certain position that is not relative to the new cell location. Absolute address is possible by inserting a dollar sign, $, before the column letter or a $ before the row number, or sometimes both to lock the cell location to a fixed address or position.
The degree to which a test instrument consistently measures the same group's knowledge level of the same instruction when taking the test over again.
In special education, helping an individual with performance deficits learn or improve through education, training, and therapy
Identifying and recalling information for a particular purpose.
A computer that regulates Internet traffic and assigns data transmission pathways; an intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it onward toward its destination
An assessment instrument designed to measure complex behaviors such as writing; for each of several elements in the performance, it gives a set of descriptions of various levels of quality
sans serif typeface
Typeface in which letters have no small curves (serifs or "hands and feet") at the ends of the lines that make them up; usually used for short titles rather than the main text of a document
Term associated with learning theorist Vygotsky's belief that teachers can provide good instruction by finding out where each child is in his or her development and building on the child's experiences; process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
A device that converts computer output for display on a television or video monitor
A device that uses technology similar to a photocopying machine to take an image from a printed page and convert it into a form the computer can manipulate.
The processes of approaching problems scientifically, the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work...activities through which students develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world
Young people who are...living visually and virtually from handheld screens, smart phones, and computers...(and who) increasingly need multiple forms of literacy, especially visual literacy
Utility software that operates in the background of the computer operating system, reading aloud any text that appears on the screen (e.g., menus, text, web pages)
Search and replace
A common feature of word processors that allows the user to locate the occurrence of any word or phrase within a document and substitute something else.
A program designed to search documents, either on one's computer or on the Internet, for keywords, and list the locations of documents where the keywords were found; often used to refer only to programs for Internet searches such as Google; a website that maintains a database of Internet-accessible information that can be searched to locate information of interest; without the use of search engines, it would be hard to locate anything on the Web without knowing a specific Web address. There are three major types of search engines that uses the different algorithm to search through the Web to determine the relevance of the information to what the user is searching for: those that require users to type in keywords; those that require users to type in natural languages; and those function as Web directory or yellow pages of the entire WWW
In traditional color theory, green, orange and purple are the colors formed by mixing the primary colors.
According to learning theorist Albert Bandura, students' belief in their abilities to accomplish the actions necessary to learn
Semantic aware applications
Computer applications that determine the meaning, or semantics, of information on the Internet to make connections and answer questions that would otherwise take much time and effort.
Type of assessment instrument in which students respond to a topic or question by checking a line between each of several sets of bipolar adjectives to indicate their level of feeling about the topic
Impairments associated with the loss of hearing or vision
According to information-processing learning theorists, the parts of the brain that receive information a person senses through receptors (i.e., eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and/or hands) and, after a second or so, is either lost or transferred to short-term memory (STM) or working memory
A device that facilitates music making in the aural domain by allowing users to record, edit, and play back digital audio and MIDI data
Typeface in which letters have small curves (serifs or "hands and feet") at the ends of the lines that make them up; usually used for the main text of a document
Games, usually video or computer games, which have an overtly educational purpose as opposed to games designed purely for entertainment.
Shareware and freeware
Freeware software is in the public domain to be copied freely. Some programs, games or utilities can be designed and distributed as shareware until the users pay to register, commonly within 30 or 60 days. After that period, the user pays a licensing fee to continue using the software.
short-term memory (STM)
According to information-processing learning theorists, one of the three kinds of memory or "stores" the brain uses to process information, much like a computer; STM can hold information for about 5-20 seconds, after which it is either transferred to long-term memory (LTM) or lost
An instructional method involving a scaled down approximation of a real-life situation that allows realistic practice without the expense or risks otherwise involved. Similar to problem solving, simulations often include case studies and/or role-plays; type of software that allows users to work with a computerized model of a real or imagined system in order to learn how the system works; with simulations software, the computer acts as the simulation controller, scheduling the events to occur and providing the outcomes based on actions the role players take. The software uses materials and roles to help participants feel as well as understand the dynamics of a complex situation.
An at-a-glance guide to the contents of a website, An overview of the pages within a website; most use an outline form, with pages arranged by topic; also referred to as a site index
According to constructivist learning theorists, instruction anchored in experiences that learners considered authentic because they emulate the behavior of adults
A small-format (e.g., 35mm) photographic transparency individually mounted for one-at-a-time projection.
A mobile telephone with computer-like functionality often including e-mail, Web browsing, and ability to run applications.
SMART Table Interactive Learning Center
An electronic device produced by the Prometheus company that consists of a table with a touch-screen surface and that allows several students to give input to it at the same time
social action project
Web-based project in which students are responsible for learning about and addressing important global social, economic, political, or environmental conditions
social activism theory
Characteristic agenda of renowned educator John Dewey that shaped his views about teaching and learning; resulted in the belief that social consciousness was the ultimate aim of all education, and learning was useful only in the context of social experience
The process by which we learn the rules, norms, and expectations of the society in which we live.
social networking site (SNS)
Sites that focus on building communities; individually designed webpages that allow users to upload their content, meet and connect with friends from around the world, and share media and interests in an online, easy-to-use website environment; Web applications, such as Facebook and MySpace, that allow individuals to share information and interests in an online community.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
One's perceived rank or standing in a society based on a variety of factors, which may include family income, parents' occupations, and the amount of formal education completed.
Illegally copying and using a copyrighted software package without buying it
Programs written in a computer language (in contrast with hardware or equipment) to perform various functions; written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory; the programs or instructions that tell the computer what to do, often stored on CD-ROM.
A set of programs that perform different functions but are placed in the same package and designed to work well together (e.g., MicrosoftOffice)
Any unsolicited e-mail message or website posting, usually sent for the purpose of advertising products or services or soliciting funds
Special needs students
Individuals who require special educational services to help them reach their potential.
Artificial-intelligence-based computer technology in which oral speech is converted by the computer into text.
A common ancillary feature of word processors that searches through a document and reports any instances of text that do not match a built-in dictionary.
A device that assists with analyzing and monitoring physical fitness levels by measuring lung volume
A general-purpose computer calculating tool based on the paper worksheet used by accountants; software designed to store data (usually, but not always, numeric) by row/column positions known as cells; can also do calculations on the data
Software placed on a computer without the user's knowledge for the purpose of gathering information about them (usually to sell to marketing firms)
statistical software packages
Software tools that help with qualitative data collection and analysis of student performance on tests by performing the calculations involved in any of these kinds of procedures
The part of a multiple-choice assessment instrument that sets forth the problem that will be "answered" by one option from a list of alternatives.
Materials such as flash drives, CDs, and DVDs that are used to store programs and data outside the computer's hardware.
A frame that serves as part of a planning blueprint from which a multimedia product or webpage can be designed; technique for illustrating, on paper, what the screen displays in a computer program will look like before they are actually programmed; the process of sketching the content on planning worksheets or with development software. The client and the subject matter expert work closely with the development staff in creating the storyboard, which does not have to be a work of art. The idea is to give the production team enough information so each member can begin to develop the final product.
streaming (or streamed) video/audio
A way of transmitting video or audio on the Internet so that it can be seen or heard as the file downloads
Information that refers to the relationships that exist among ideas and concepts (e.g., it allows one to understand how items are related).
A set of programming conventions designed to result in organized, easy-to-read, and correct programs. It relies on a top-down method, modular program design, a limited set of program constructs, and careful documentation of the program.
student information systems (SIS)
Networked software systems that help educators keep track of student, class, and school data (e.g., attendance, test scores) in order to maintain records and support decision making
student response systems (SRS)
(a.k.a., personal response systems, classroom response systems, or clickers) a combination of handheld hardware and software that permits each student in the classroom to answer a question simultaneously and lets the teacher see and display a summary of results immediately
A test run of an instructional activity, approach, media, or materials with a small group of students before using it on a large scale.
Also called a template, a style sheet is a file or form that defines the document layout such as the page size, margins, indents, rules, typeface fonts are specified in the style sheet. Style sheets are useful because the same style sheet can be used for many documents.
In computers and television, light transmissions are creating colors based on a special set of 3 primary colors: red, green, and blue. For example, red and green mix to create yellow.
Assessment that occurs after instruction that measures what students have learned; evaluation that comes at the conclusion of an educational program or instructional sequence.
In a network, equipment to compress data in order for information to be transmitted at higher speeds [e.g., Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches]; in special education, devices that allow a person with a disability an alternative to the typical keyboard and thus allow easier input to the computer
Form of distance communications in which messages are sent and received immediately; contrasts with asynchronous communications, in which information and messages are left for the receiver to read later; occurring at the same time.
Synchronous and asynchronous communications
In telecommunication, an asynchronous signal is one that is transmitted at a different clock rate than another signal and synchronous signals are those that run at the same clock rate. In a virtual chatroom, members communicate in real time, so they are typing and reading conversations simultaneously. This allows for synchronous meetings. In contrast to synchronously communications, newsgroups, listserv, and electronic bulletin boards allow for discussions to take place and develop asynchronously.
systems approaches to instructional design
Methods originated by educational psychologists such as Robert Gagné and Leslie Briggs, who applied principles from military and industrial training to developing curriculum and instruction for schools; methods used to create a carefully designed system of instruction or instructional design
The basic operating software that tells the computer how to perform its fundamental functions.
Elements of HTML that are used to define properties of web pages; for example, the tags, <B>. and, </B>. denote the beginning and end of boldfaced text.
talking word processor
A software package that reads typed words aloud
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The communication standard used by computers on the Internet; uses several sets of protocols, the two major ones being TCP and IP. It is the collection of communications protocols used to connect host computers on the Internet. All of the computers on the Internet speak the same TCP/IP language.
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK, TPACK, or Tech-PACK)
A framework that identifies a combination of essential skills/knowledge in three areas (content, pedagogy, and technology) that are required if teachers are to integrate technology to greatest effect in their teaching.
The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks; technology performs a bridging function between research and theory on one side and professional practice on the other.
A specialist and resource person who handles computers and related technologies for a school building or district.
A view of technology in education that originated with industry trainers and vocational educators in the 1980s and is currently represented by the International Technology Education Association (ITEA); holds that (1) school learning should prepare students for the world of work in which they will use technology, and (2) vocational training can help teach all content areas such as math, science, and language
The ability to understand and use various forms of technology.
Organized set of goals, objectives, and steps that outline how an individual or organization will acquire and maintain specific levels of technology hardware and software (e.g., computers).
A type of distance education where instruction is delivered via video, usually as a broadcast from one site to many sites
Today, students have a chance to learn how knowledge is used in the world outside the school through a practice known as "telementoring." A teacher no longer needs to be the sole content matter expert in the classroom. Volunteer subject matter experts, such as marine biologists, can serve as telementors to work virtually with students in mentor-protege relationships that contribute to students' authentic learning experiences.
A prepared layout designed to ease the process of creating a product in certain computer applications; for example, a slide design and color scheme for presentation software or a spreadsheet with appropriate labels and formulas but without the data.
A computer program used to create assessment instruments; software designed to help teachers prepare and/or administer tests
test item bank
Pre-made pools of questions that can be used by test generator software to create various versions of the same test
A combination of alphanumeric characters and numbers used to communicate.
An instant form of communications carried out on cell phones and can allow sending images and short videos, as well as text
The "Rule of Thirds"
Each scene you shoot should have a focal point, that is, a particular subject upon which the audience will focus. Many experienced photographers know to mentally divide your viewfinder into thirds horizontally and vertically. By doing this, they make your focal point fall on the intersections of a horizontal and vertical third.
A set of related principles explaining observed events/relationships. Theories typically make predictions in the form of "If . . . , then . . . " statements that can be tested.
TIF (Tagged Image File)
An image format designed to allow exchange of image files among various software applications and computers
An approach to problem solving and computer programming that begins by outlining the basic solution at a fairly high level of abstraction and then breaks that outline down into its component parts until they can be coded.
An editing command in word-processing software that can be turned on from one of the programs drop-down menus to show changes as they are made to an original document; changes can either be accepted or rejected
The use of prior knowledge in new situations or as it applies to new problems.
Popular Web graphic formats usually support the transparency feature of Web images where one color (often white) is set to match the background color of the browser.
The process of obtaining information from more than one technique or source in order to strengthen individual findings.
A type of computer virus offered to users as a helpful program but which is actually destructive; named after the giant wooden horse, ostensibly given as a gift from the Greeks to the Trojans (during the Trojan War), and in which Greek soldiers hid to enter the Trojan fortress under cover
An instructional method in which a tutor-in the form of a person, computer, or special print materials presents the content, poses a question or problem, requests learner response, analyzes the response, supplies appropriate feedback, and provides practice until the learner demonstrates a predetermined level of competency; type of instructional software that offers a complete sequence of instruction on a given topic, including explanation, examples, embedded practice and feedback, and usually, also assessment
Tutorial and drills and practice software
Tutorial software is designed to teach the skill initially by direct instruction methods. It is unique in that it presents new information and may even provide an independent teaching environment without a teacher. Drills and Practice applications are software designed to allow the user to practice a skill that has already been acquired or taught. There are thousands of drill and practice programs that teach everything from foreign languages to many other basic skills.
"Tween" is actually short for "in-between", and refers to the creation of successive frames of animation between key frames. Morphing one shape into another over a set period of time or else moving a shape or shapes from point A to point B over a set period of time are all examples of tweening.
Two-way interactive video
A distance education technology in which sending and receiving sites are equipped with cameras, microphones, and video monitors and linked via some means of transmission (e.g., satellite, microwave, cable, fiber-optic cable).
Application of different features to any word-processing font, including boldface, italics, underline. and others.
Typefaces are often described as being serif or sans serif (without serifs). Serif is a line or curved extension projecting from the end of a letter form. The most common serif typeface is Times Roman. A common sans serif typeface is Helvetica. Sans serif is the class of type faces without serifs; Helvetica is an example. Sometimes, sans-serif typefaces are more legible than serif typefaces when the character size is small.
Sometimes called pervasive computing or distributed intelligence, it refers to situations in which computer processing power is embedded, often invisibly, in objects in the everyday environment.
A software feature that allows the user to recover from an error; for example, if you select and delete the wrong block of text, the undo command restores the text to the document.
Uniform Resource Indicator (URL)
The unique address for every Internet site or World Wide Web page containing the protocol type, the domain, the directory, and the name of the site or page; a series of letters and/or symbols that acts as an address for a site on the Internet
App that that work on all platforms (e.g., on a Droid, iPad, iPod, and iPhone)
Adjustments made to physical environments as a result of understanding the special needs of individuals with disabilities, e.g., curb cuts in sidewalks to allow wheelchair access; an approach to the design of products and environments, developed in part from assistive technology, that emphasizes usability for all people.
Sending information over a network to another computer.
Also called draw graphics, in which the computer "remembers" the steps involved in creating a particular graphic image on the screen, independent of a particular screen location or the graphic's size.
Proposed by learning theorist Albert Bandura as learning that occurs through observation, rather than by actions
Video capture card
Video capture cards let developers record/digitize pictures for use with a computer. The pictures may be still images or movies. Once captured, the picture data is compressed using a CODEC, with playback requiring CODEC-decompression.
A distance education technology that uses two-way audio and two-way video between sites; an online "meeting" between two or more participants at different sites using: a computer or network with appropriate software; video cameras, microphone, and speakers; and telephone lines or other cabling to transmit audio and video signals
An add-on device for the computer that takes video from analog video sources and captures it as a computer graphic or motion video.
An analog video storage medium composed of recorded images and sound, similar to the CD. Depending on format, a videodisc can hold from 30 to 60 minutes of motion video images, up to 54,000 still images, or a combination of motion and still images. As with the CD, the videodisc can be indexed for rapid location of any part of the material.
video editing software
Programs that allow a user to make additions and changes to a selection of digital video (e.g., iMovie)
A video storage medium in which video images and sound are recorded on magnetic tape. Popular sizes include one-inch commercial tape, three-quarter-inch U-matic, half-inch VHS or S-VHS,8-millimeter, and digital miniDV.
The display of recorded pictures on a television-like screen. Includes videotapes, videodiscs, and CDs.
virtual field trip
Online activities in which students explore unique locations around the world and/or communicate with learners at those sites; also known as electronic field trip
Virtual learning communities
Cyberspace has the potential to be a tremendous resource for students and educators at all levels. Virtual learning communities span distances to create student groups joined by interest and expertise. Online discussion forum, distance education, and pen-pal projects are all examples of virtual learning communities.
Software replicas of real objects often used in learning mathematics; are accessed via the Internet and can be manipulated through a keyboard or other input device
virtual reality modeling language (VRML)
A programming language that allows the creation and display of three-dimensional objects on a computer screen and allows users to have the illusion of moving around the objects
virtual reality (VR)
A computer-generated environment designed to provide a life-like simulation of actual settings; often uses a data glove and/or headgear that covers the eyes in order to immerse the user in the simulated environment; representation of real or imaginary worlds in which the user interacts through multiple senses
Instruction in which (K-12) students and teachers are separated by time and/or location and interact via computers and/ or telecommunications technologies
A computer program that infects a computer system, causing damage or mischief. Like a biological virus, it causes the host computer to make copies of the virus, which can then spread to other computers over networks, through online services, or via infected diskettes.
virus protection software
Software put into place to protect computers from hackers and virus attacks; examples: Norton and McAfee
How one perceives the future could/should be (e.g., technology vision--how technology should be used in the future).
Combination of graphics and text presented in a two-dimensional format.
A combination of the terms video and blogging, a video version of the blog in which posts are video clips instead of text entries
vocal processing software
Programs that are to voice audio what word processing software is to text; allows users to make changes to the pitch and create interesting vocal distortions with recorded voice tracks
A term that combines "iPod," "video," and "broadcast," refers to digitized video files saved in a format that can be shared over the Internet on sites such as YouTube for playback on the computer or personal media devices site; a video podcast.
Voice EXtensible Markup Language (VXML)
Programming language that helps create environments where a user interacts with the Internet through voice-recognition technology
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
An authoring specification for displaying three-dimensional objects on the Internet
In a school district, a Wide Area Network (also known as WAN) is the "backbone" that connects all local area networks across the sites and campuses to provide its users with the capability to use e-mail, connect to the Internet, and interface with external computer systems.
Web 2.0 authoring tools
Authoring tools that are freely available to anyone with an Internet connection and provide users with the powerful capabilities of generating and sharing online content, creating online portfolios, social networking, and tagging or rating other user-generated content
Umbrella term for second-generation web technologies that allow for communication and collaboration of people in Web-based communities.
The level to which a website is designed following a set of criteria that make it usable by people with various disabilities
web-based learning (or lessons)
General terms for learning or learning activities that take place via the Internet
Completely online (on the Internet) courses and curriculum
Application program designed to access the Internet and navigate its nonsequential pathways.
A video camera that is connected to a computer in order to gather local video for viewing at other locations
A live video broadcast of an event sent over the Internet
Short for web seminar, an interactive and synchronous meeting or presentation format which is conducted over the Web.
A hypertext document on the World Wide Web, somewhat analogous to a printed page; a document connected to the World Wide Web and viewable by anyone connected to the internet who has a web browser
web page editors
Authoring programs that allow creation of web pages in the same way word processing is used to create to create documents
A curriculum project in which students explore websites to find and analyze information on a topic; a form of inquiry-oriented activity, first developed by Bernie Dodge and Tom March at San Diego State University, in which some or all of the information used by learners is drawn from resources on the Web.
A computer connected to the Internet that makes web pages and websites available to other computers.
A set of interrelated Web pages usually operated by a single entity (e.g., company, school, organization, or individual).
Also known as negative space. White space describes the open space between design objects to provide spatial relationships. It should be an integral part to your page design. While some artists concentrate on what to put in, they can easily overlook what to leave out.
Wide-area network (WAN)
A computer network covering a broad geographical area, such as between buildings, campuses, or even across hundreds or thousands of miles. Often involves the interconnection of multiple local-area networks.
A collection of webpages located in an online community that encourage collaboration and communication of ideas by having users contribute or modify content; contain the ongoing work of many authors
A stage of creating webpages or websites in which one draws on paper how the website will appear, including tables, navigation, photos, and other details
Electronic dictionaries and thesauruses that give pronunciations, definitions, and example uses for each word entry, and offer search and multimedia features similar to those of encyclopedias and atlases
A computer program for writing that supports the entry, editing, revising, formatting, storage, retrieval, and printing of text.
Another name besides "spreadsheet" for the product of a spreadsheet program
Software tool that helps teachers produce exercises for practice (rather than for assessment) by prompting them to enter questions of various kinds
World Wide Web (WWW)
On the Internet ,a system that connects sites through hypertext links; now often used synonymously with "Internet"; an information retrieval system on the Internet that relies on a point-and-click hypertext navigation system.
A type of virus that makes copies of itself in order to use up a computer's resources and slow down or shut down the system
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
A standard for word processor displays where what shows on the computer display is what the document will look like when it is printed.
Acronym for Extensible Mark-up Language, a language that describes the geometry and behavior of a virtual world or scene; a tagging or markup language that facilitates the transmission and manipulation of information across the internet. Unlike HTML, these tags are expandable and describe the data rather than the data format
A computer implanted with a program that puts it under the control of a someone without the knowledge of the computer user; usually used in combination with other, similar-infected computers to attack an organization's computer system and slow it down or shut it down
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Term coined by learning theorist Vygotsky to refer to the difference between two levels of cognitive functioning: adult or expert and child or novice