29. Brighton College: Medical Terminology

123 terms by cmweber4me 

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myel/o

bone marrow; spinal cord

myeloma

-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of the bone marrow

osteomyelitis

-itis = inflammation
oste/o = bone

inflammation of bone and bone marrow

osse/o; oste/o

bone

osteitis

-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bone

osteochondritis

-itis = inflammation
chondr/o = cartilage

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

osteocyte

cyte = cell

mature bone cell

osteoma

-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of bone

osteotome

-tome = instrument used to cut

intrument to cut bone

ostetomy

-tomy = process of cutting; incision

process of cutting bone

endosteum

-um = structure
endo - within

inner lining of the shaft of a long bone (tibia/ulna)

periosteum

-um = structure
peri = around

the structure around the shaft of a long bone

crani/o

skull

craniofacial

-al = pertaining to
faci/o = face

pertaining to the face and skull

cranioplasty

-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction
surgical repair of the skull

craniotomy

-tomy = incision; process of cutting
incision into the skull

mandibul/o

mandible; lower jaw

mandibular

-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the lower jaw

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

-ar = pertaining to
tempor/o = temporal bone

pertaining to the joint between the temporal bone and the lower jaw

maxill/o

maxilla; upper jaw

maxillary

-ary = pertaining to

peratining to the upper jaw

chondr/o

cartilage

achondroplasia

-plasia = development; formation,
a- = no; not; inadequate

inadequate cartilage formation resulting in a type of dwarfism

chondrocyte

-cyte = cell

cartilage cell

chondroma

-oma = tumor; mass

benign tumor of cartilage

cost/o

rib

costochondral

-al = pertaining to
chondr/o = cartilage

pertaining to the ribs & cartilage

subcostal

-al = pertaining to
sub = under
pertaining to under the skin

stern/o

sternum; breastbone

costosternal

-al = pertaining to
cost/o = ribs

pertaining to the ribs and sternum

sternotomy

-tomy = process of cutting; incision

process of cutting the sternum

xiph/o

sword

xiphiod

-oid = resembling

distal portion of the sternum; literally means "resembling a sword"

cervic/o

neck

cervical

-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the neck

coccyg/o

coccyx; tailbone

coccygeal

-eal = pertaining to
pertaining to the tailbone

lumbodynia

-dynia = pain
pain in the lower back; also known as lumbago

lumbosacral joint

-al = pertaining to
scar/o = sacrum

pertaining to the joint between L5 and the sacrum

sacr/o

sacrum

sacrococcygeal joint

-eal = pertainint to
coccyg/o = tailbone

pertaining to the joint between the sacrum and the coccyx

spondyl/o

vertebra

spondylitis

-itis = inflammation
inflammation of the vertebrae

spondylopathy

-pathy = disease
any disease of the vertebrae

thorac/o

chest

thoracolumbar

-ar = pertaining to
lumb/o = lower back; loins

pertaining to the chest and the lower back

vertebr/o

vertebra

costovertebral joint

-al = pertaining to
cost/o = rib

pertaining the joint between a rib

intervertebral

-al = pertaining to
inter - between

pertaining to between the vertrebrae

clavicul/o

clavicle; collarbone

sternoclavcular joint

-ar = pertaining to
stern/o = sternum; breastbone

pertaining to the joint between the sternum and the clavicle

infraclavicular

-ar = pertaining to
infra = below, beneath

pertaining to below the collarbone

scapul/o

scapula

subscapular

-ar = pertaining to
sub = under; below

pertaining to hthe scapula

brachi/o

arm

brachial

-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the arm

brachiocephalic

-ic = pertaining to
cephal/o = head

pertaining to the arm and head

carp/o

wrist

carpectomy

-ectomy = excision; surgical removal

excision of the carpal (wrist) bone

olecran/o

olecranon (elbow)

olecranal

-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the olcranon, a bony projection on the ulna

phalang/o

phalanx; one of the bones making up the fingers or toes

interphalangeal joint

-eal = pertaining to
inter = between

pertaining to the joint between the phalanges

radi/o

radius (one of the bones of the lower arm)

radiocarpal joint

-al = pertaining to
carpa/o = wrist

pertaining to the joint between the radius and the wrist

uln/o

ulnar (one of the bones of the lower arm)

ulnar

-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the ulna

acetabul/o

acetabulum; hip socket

acetabular

-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the hip socket

acetabuloplasty

-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction

surgical repair of the hip socket

iliosacral joint

-al = pertaining to
sacr/o = sacrum

pertaining to the joint between the hip and sacrum; also known as the sacroiliac joint.

pelvic

-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to the pelvis

calcane/o

heel

calcaneal

-eal = pertaining to

pertaining to the heel

iliofemoral joint

-al = pertaining to
ili/o = hip

pertaining to the joint between the hip and the femur

fibul/o

fibula

fibulocalcaneal

-eal = pertaining to
calcane/o = heel
pertaining tot he fibula and the heel

patell/a; patell/o

patella; kneecap

patellapexy

-plexy = surgical fixation

surgical fixation of the kneecap

infrapatellar

-ar = pertaining to
infra- = below

pertaining to below the kneecap

suprapatellar

-ar = pertaining to
supra- = above

pertaining to above the kneecap

tibi/o

tibia; shin

tibiofibular joint

-ar = pertaining to
fibul/o = fibula

pertaining to the joint between the tibia and fibula

arthr/o; articul/o

joint

arthtalgia

-algia = pain

joint pain; also known as arthrodynia

arthritis

-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the joint
NOTE: types include, Osteoarthritis (OA) which is degeneration of the articular cartilage due to overuse and resulting in painful movement of the joint. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system fails to recognize its own cells as normal and the body's tissues are attacked as if they were foreign invaders.

arthropathy

-pathy = disease

any disease of the joint

arthroplasty

-plasty = surgical repair or reconstruction

surgical repair of a joint; usually refers to the total or partial replacement of the knee or hip joint with an prosthetic (artificial) device.

arthroscopy

-scopy = process of visual examination

process of visually examining the joint cavity by using an arthroscope.
NOTE: In arthroscopic surgery, a video camera takes images of a joint cavity and displays the images on a TV monitor. With this technique, and using local anesthetic, the joint can be worked on with good visualization of the entire joint. Recovery time is minimal and hospital stay is reduces,

interarticular

-ar = pertaining to
inter = between

pertaining to between the joints

burs/o

bursa (sac filled with synovial fluid located around the joints)

bursitis

-itis = inflammation
inflamed bursa

bursectomy

-ectomy = excision; surgical removal

excision of the bursa

-blast

immature

osteoblast

oste/o = bone

immature bone cells

-centesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid; aspiration

arthrocentesis

arthr/o = joint

surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid; aspiration of a joint cavity

-clasis

surgical fracture or refracture

osteclasis

oste/o = bone

surgical fracture or refracture of bone

-clast

breakdown

osteoclast

oste/o = bone

bone cells that breakdown bone

-desis

surgical fusion; surgical binding

arthrodesis

arthr/o = joint

surgical fusion of a joint

-gensis

formation

osteogensis

oste/o = bone

bone formation; also known as ossication

-malacia

softening

chondromalacia

chondr/o = cartilage

softening of the cartilage

osteomalacia

oste/o = bone

softening of the bone

-osis

abnormal condition

kyphosis

kyph/o = humpback

exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine; humpback

lordosis

lord/o = swayback

exaggerated anterior curvature of the thoracic spine; swayback

scoliosis

scoli/o = curved

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

-physis

to grow

diaphysis

dia- = through

the shaft of a long bone

epiphysis

epi- = on; upon

the bulbous portion of a long bone on both sides of the shaft

-porosis

porous

osteoporosis

oste/o = bone

loss of bone density resulting in open spaces with the body structure.

-sarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue

chondrosarcoma

chondr/o = cartilage
malignant tumor of cartilage

osteosarcoma

oste/o = bone

malignant tumor of bone; also known as osteogenic sarcoma.

ortho-

straight

orthopedics

-ic = pertaining to
ped/o = child

surgical specialty dealing with the correction of deformities and dysfunctions of the skeletal system.

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