what drugs are direct-acting cholinergic drugs?
what drugs are indirect-acting cholinergic drugs?
what drugs are indirect-acting for alzheimer's?
remember ARC - aricept, reminyl, and cognex
what is the mechanism of action for direct-acting and indirect-acting cholinergic drugs?
direct acting mimic ach, and indirect act to decrease the function of acetylcholinesterase
what are the routes of administration for direct-acting, indirect-acting, and indirect for alzheimers?
all are PO, but indirect is also IM and IV
what is myasthenia gravis?
produces antibodies to Ach receptor sites (decreased receptor sites)
what does chronotropic and inotropic effects mena?
chrono is change in HR and inotropic is change in strength of contraction
what is the main neurotransmitter during cholinergic stimulation?
does vasodilation help with coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis?
no, b/c the plaque is still there clogging the arteries
what is cholinergic crisis?
too much PSNS stimulation - extreme hypotension, respiratory failure, abdominal cramping, weakness
what drugs would you use for myasthenia gravis?
what is the mechanism of action for anticholinergic drugs?
occupy binding sites on PSNS receptors in target organs so Ach cannot bind. Block the PSNS response
what is detrol?
what does decreased aqueous humor mean?
decreased pressure in the eye
what is glaucoma?
pressure on the optic nerve (by taking cholinergic or antiadrenergic drugs you can decreased aqueous humor)
what neurotransmitter can help with alzheimers?
what are contraindications that almost all drugs have?
hypersensitivity, renal or hepatic impairment
what is the result from alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation?
alpha is vasoconstriction
what is the result of beta stimulation? B-1 and B-2?
B-1 = cardiac stimulation
B-2 = bronchodilation
what are examples of adrenergic drugs?
epinephrine, ephedrine, sudafed, isoproterenol, albuterol, sudafed PE
what receptor does sudafed PE work on?
what is the only difference between anticholinergic and adrenergic drugs?
anticholinergic drugs are antispasmodic effect on urinary and GI systems
what is the only effect different between cholinergic and antiadrenergic drugs?
cholinergic drugs increase GI and bladder tone
what drug is used as a urinary antispasmodic?
what drug is used for treatment of parkinsons?
trihexy/ cogentin (centrally-acting anticholinergic)
TriC is college
what are drugs used to treat GI problems
Bentyl, Robinul - anticholinergic drugs
how does the antiadrenergic drugs function?
blocks the SNS
4 categories of drugs
BUCA - B (belladonna alkaloids) , U (urinary antispasmic) , C (centrally-acting), A (anticholinergic to treat GI)
what is the route of administration for belladonna alkaloid drugs?
what is the route of administration for centrally acting and anticholinergic drugs?
PO (orally only)
what is the difference between Sudafed and Sudafed PE?
Sudafed acts on alpha and beta-2 (causes bronchodilation and PE does not)
what mechanism of action is used with a nasal congestion spray?
topical adminisration - causes vasoconstriction in the nasal mucosa (alpha stimulation)
what do alpha blocker names usually end in?
what do b-blockers names usually end in?
olol - think bilal
how do diuretics work?
decrease reabsorption in the tubule
how does antiotensin 2 receptor blockers work?
these drugs compete with angiotensin 2 for binding sites. Therefore, the vasoconstriction is blocked
prevent agiotensin converting enzyme from making angiotensin 2 - results in no vasoconstriction
what are 2 side effects that have major influences on rehabilitation?
hypotension and orthostatic hypotension
what are risk factors for hypertension?
family history, stress, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia
what do african-americans usually respond better to?
diuretics or calcium blockers than ACE inhibitors
asian, arab, and egyptian patients respond overly to what?
how does calcium channel blockers work?
blocking calcium channels in smooth muscle (vasodilation)
what is verapamil?
calcium channel blocker