PAI & MMPI Clinical & Validity Scales (Rapid Reference)

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Lie (L)

MMPI-2 validity scale; assesses naive attempts to place oneself in a morally and culturally favorable light by denying moral imperfections

Infrequency (F)

MMPI-2 validity scale; assesses the tendency to claim highly unusual attitudes and behaviors as a function of severe psychopathology; a subject's seeking to place himself or herself in an unfavorable light; or a subject's difficulties completing the inventory (e.g., reading problems or random or careless responding)

Correction (K)

MMPI-2 validity scale; assesses the tendency to control and limit the disclosure of distress, discomfort, and problems relating to others; fractions of this score are added as a correction to scales 1, 4, 7, 8, and 9 to discourage false-negative/false-positive scores on these scales

1: Hypochondriasis (Hs)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures the tendency to manifest physical symptoms as an expression of emotional discomfort, to be preoccupied w/ one's health, and to reject nonmedical (i.e., psychological) explanations for such symptoms

2: Depression (D)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures aspects of symptomatic depression: dysphoria, distress, pessimism, low morale, inhibition, intropunitiveness, physical discomfort and vegetative symptoms, problems in thinking, and social vulnerability

3: Hysteria (Hy)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures the tendency to develop physical symptoms under stress, to experience pain, and to deny social friction or discord w/ others

4: Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures alienation, social disinhibition, and the tendency to come into conflict w/ family, authorities, and others through rebellion, exploitation, misconduct, poorly developed conscience, and the lack of internalized moral standards

5: Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures broad patterns of interests, activities, attitudes, and sentiments that tend to follow gender stereotypes

6: Paranoia (Pa)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures personal/moral rigidity, interpersonal sensitivity, resentment, and ideas of being misunderstood, mistreated, persecuted, or controlled by others, and the tendency to construe the actions, intentions, and motives of others as unfair, degrading, or hostile

7: Psychasthenia (Pt)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures the tendency to express stresses through tension, anxiety, apprehensiveness, worry, phobias, obsessions, rumination, compulsions, and fears of losing control, with willful and inflexible efforts to control such symptoms

8: Schizophrenia (Sc)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures severe alienation, self-contempt, apathy, cognitive disruption, inertia, feelings of unreality, alien impulses, and motor and sensory impairment

9: Hypomania (Ma)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures a rapid and energetic personal tempo, hyperarousal, hyperactivity, stimulation-seeking, euphoria, imperviousness, undercontrol, and rebellious impulses (high scores), versus lethargy, slowness, submissiveness, vulnerability, scrupulousness and, occasionally depression (low scores)

10: Social Introversion (Si)

MMPI-2 clinical scale; measures introversion, shyness, social anxiety, social timidity and awkwardness, and social avoidance (high scores), versus extroversion, outgoingness, social comfort and skill, social intrepidity, and social stimulation-seeking (low scores)

Inconsistency (ICN)

PAI validity scale; determines whetherthe client is answering consistently throughout the inventory; each pair consists of highly (positively or negatively) correlated items

Infrequency (INF)

PAI validity scale; determines whether the client is responding carelessly, randomly, or idiosyncratically; items are neutral with respect to psychopathology and have extremely high or low endorsement rates

Negative Impression (NIM)

PAI validity scale; suggests an exaggerated unfavorable impression or malingering

Positive Impression (PIM)

PAI validity scale; suggests the presentation of a very favorable impression or reluctance to admit minor flaws

Somatic Complaints (SOM)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on preoccupation with health matters and somatic complaints associated with somatization or conversion disorders

Anxiety (ANX)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on phenomenology and observable signs of anxiety, with an emphasis on assessment across different response modalities

Anxiety-Related Disorders (ARD)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on symptoms and behaviors related to specific anxiety disorders—particularly phobias, traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms

Depression (DEP)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on symptoms and phenomenology of depressive disorders

Mania (MAN)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms of mania and hypomania

Paranoia (PAR)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on symptoms of paranoid disorders and on more enduring characteristics of the paranoid personality

Schizophrenia (SCZ)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on symptoms relevant to the broad spectrum of schizophrenic disorders

Borderline Features (BOR)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on attributes indicative of a borderline level of personality functioning, including unstable and fluctuating interpersonal relations, impulsivity, affective lability and instability, and uncontrolled anger

Antisocial Features (ANT)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on history of illegal acts and authority problems, egocentrism, lack of empathy and loyalty, instability, and excitement-seeking

Alcohol Problems (ALC)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on problematic consequences of alcohol use and features of alcohol dependence

Drug Problems (DRG)

PAI clinical scale; focuses on problematic consequences of drug use (both prescription and illicit) and features of drug dependence

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