Chapter 18 - Foreign Policy and National Security

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Think tanks do all of the following except

Avoid attachments to universities

By foreign policy, we mean

the nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies to achieve them

Diplomacy refers to

the settling of disputes and conflicts among nations by peaceful methods

Assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans or credits on products is called

economic aid

Diplomacy failed before

the First Gulf War

The _____ is/are the most successful example of US diplomacy to encourage peace in the Middle East

Camp David Accords

A policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized US foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800s, is known as

isolationist foreign policy

The Monroe Doctrine was an example of

isolationist foreign policy

The sending of experts with technical skills to aid other nations is called

technical assistance

The National Security Council (NSC) is

an advisory body to the president on foreign policy matters

The set of policies having to do with the US armed forces is called

defense policy

Foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity is known as

national security policy

National security policy is

foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity

Policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation is known as

national security policy

National security policy is a

policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation

The steps by which foreign policy goals are decided and acted on is known as

the foreign policy process

Moral idealism is a philosophy that

sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct

Political realism is a philosophy that

sees each nation as acting in its own interest regardless of moral considerations

A major determinant of US foreign policy in the formative years was

that the US was very weak militarily

During the 1800s, the United States generally

stayed out of European conflicts and politics but pursued an expansionist policy in this hemisphere

The Monroe Doctrine stated that

European nations must not establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere

The US policy that stated that European nations must not establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere is known as the

Monroe Doctrine

United States foreign policy toward Europe during most of 1800s was

isolationist

America obtained which of the following possessions as a result of the Spanish-American War

The Philippines and Puerto Rico

After World War I, the United States returned to a state of "normalcy" in foreign policy, which meant

a reduction in military forces, defense spending, and a return to isolationism

American isolationism

came to an end with the bombing of the US naval base at Pearl Harbor

The United States was the only major country to emerge from World War II with

nuclear weapons

The Soviet bloc

consisted of the Soviet Union and eastern European countries with Communist regimes

The cold War

was the political, ideological and economic confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II

The doctrine of containment set forth by George F. Kennan stated that

the United States should seek to contain communist power within existing boundaries

During the Cold War, there was

no direct military conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union

All of the following are true about the War in Vietnam except

the United States assumed the role of supporting South Vietnam because Britain was no longer up to the task

The French word detente means

a relaxation of tensions

The policy of detente with the Soviet Union was developed by

President Nixon and his secretary of state Henry Kissinger

Russian President Vladimir Putin

would face popular discontent without the huge revenues produced by Russian oil supplies

The policy adopted in 1947 to halt Communist expansion in southeastern Europe is known as the

Truman Doctrine

The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) was agreed to in 1972 in order to

stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the United States and the Soviet Union

The term used to describe the division of Europe between the Soviet bloc and the West is known as

the Iron Curtain

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the

Soviet Union was divided into a number of states known as the Russian Federation

As a result of planning for the post-Cold War world, the American military was downsized by _____ between 1990 and 2001

one-third

Russia faces a problem of terrorism resulting from

demands for independence by Chechnya

Goals of the al Qaeda terrorist network have apparently included

getting US forces out of Saudi Arabia

in 2002, President George W. Bush enunciated a new foreign policy doctrine that held, in part, that

the United States was prepared to wage preemptive war against perceived threats with or without allies

Saddam Hussein's annexation of Kuwait in 1990

was the most clear-cut case of aggression against an independent state in half a century

George W. Bush described the following three nations as an "axis of evil"

Iraq, Iran, and North Korea

During the Second Gulf War in 2003, the Iraqi army

disbanded itself and went home

Sunnis and Shiites

are two branches of the religion of Islam with somewhat different beliefs and traditions

A majority of the population of Iraq is

Shiite Arab

It is believed that _____ is supporting the insurgency in Iraq

Iran

Nuclear proliferation became an even greater issue than before in 1998 when _____ detonated nuclear devices

India and Pakistan

Today, for the United States, the greatest concern resulting from nuclear proliferation is that

nuclear devices could fall into the hands of terrorists

If America has granted another nation Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status,

we must treat the trade of that nation as well as we treat the trade of the country that receives most favorable treatment

All of the following have been sources of tension between China and America except

China's failure to offer support to America immediately following the events of 9/11

The internationally recognized solution to the Israeli-Palestinian dispute is that

Isreal yields the West Bank and Gaza strip to the Palestinians in return for security guarantees and Palestinian abandonment of any right of return to Israel proper

In January 2006, _____ won a majority of the seats in the Palestinian legislature, and alarming development since it has called for the destruction of Israel

the militant group Hamas

In the summer of 2006, Israel went to war with _____ in Lebanon

the militant group Hezbollah

During the early 2000, AIDS spread throughout _____, infecting millions of adults, leaving orphaned children, and devastating the economies of numerous nations

Southern Africa

Presidents have been largely successful in getting treaties

through the Senate

Since World War II executive agreements have

accounted for almost 95 percent of the understandings reached between the United States and other nations

The state department is

the executive agency that is most directly concerned with foreign affairs

One of the problems for the State Department domesticall is that

it has only "negative constituents" citizens who oppose the government's policies

Citizens who openly oppose the government's policies are known as

negative constituents

Which of the following is not a member of the National Security Council

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

The government agencies that are involved in gathering information about the capabilites and intentions of foreign governments are known as

the intelligence community

_____ served in the first term of George W. Bush as National Security Advisor and in the second term as Secretary of State

Condoleezza Rice

The intelligence community includes all of the following except

Department of Defense

The Department of Defense

is larger than any other federal department

The government agencies that gather information about the capabilites and intentions of foreign governments or that engage in covert actions are known as the

intelligence community

One of the major outcomes of the Vietnam War was

a new interest in the balance of power between Congress and the president on foreign policy questions

In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act, which

limited the president's use of troops in military action without congressional approval

The attentive public refers to

that proportion of the general public that pays attention to policy issues

The military-industrial complex

was something that President Eisenhower warned of in a speech when leaving office

China currently produces

more steel than the United States and Japan combined

Only four members of the 107th Congress

had children in one of the military services

More than _____ people in Darfur have died since 2003, as a direct result of the Sudanese government's actions to displace an entire population

200,000

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