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The personalities of adopted children:

are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.

A child's temperament is likely to be:

stable over time.

Three-year-old Jack is inhibited and shy. As an adult, Jack is likely to be:

cautious and unassertive.

Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.

religious beliefs

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most clearly differ in:

temperament.

The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of:

natural selection.

According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be:

genetically predisposed.

Which of the following is an example of an interaction?

Swimmers with certain personality traits swim fastest during competition, while those with other personality traits swim fastest during solo time trials.

A random error in gene replication is known as a:

mutation.

The unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers. This best illustrates the ________ of nature and nurture.

interaction

Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among:

males with traditional masculine attitudes.

Compared to women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse.

more; less

Critics of evolutionary psychology are particularly likely to emphasize that gender differences in mate preferences are byproducts of:

cultural practices.

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women.

greater reproductive potential

My sibling and I developed from a single fertilized egg. Who are we?

same-sex identical twins.

Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by:

heredity.

Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are:

more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.

One of the best ways to distinguish how much genetic and environmental factors affect behavior is to compare children who have:

the same genes but different environments.

Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because:

any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.

If a fraternal twin develops schizophrenia, the likelihood of the other twin developing serious mental illness is much lower than with identical twins. This suggests that:

schizophrenia is influenced by genes.

Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of:

temperament

Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by:

genes than by home environment.

Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?

Ruth and Ramona, identical twins

Temperament refers to a person's characteristic:

emotional reactivity and intensity.

Three-year-old Jack is inhibited and shy. As an adult, Jack is likely to be:

cautious and unassertive.

In emphasizing that heredity's effects on behavior depend on a person's home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of:

nature-nurture interactions.

An evolutionary psychologist would suggest that people are genetically predisposed to:

do all of the alternatives.

When evolutionary psychologists use the word "fitness," they are specifically referring to:

our ability to survive and reproduce.

People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the:

interaction of nature and nurture.

Compared to women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse.

more; less

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women.

greater reproductive potential

Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ________ theory of sexual behavior.

evolutionary

Evolutionary explanations of gender differences in sexuality have been criticized because:

of all of the alternative reasons.

Unlike ________ twins, who develop from a single fertilized egg, ________ twins develop from separate fertilized eggs.

identical; fraternal

If a fraternal twin develops schizophrenia, the likelihood of the other twin developing serious mental illness is much lower than with identical twins. This suggests that:

schizophrenia is influenced by genes.

A person whose twin has Alzheimer's disease has ________ risk of sharing the disease if they are identical twins than if they are fraternal twins.

much greater

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________.

religious beliefs; personality traits

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute a love of one's own children to:

genetic predispositions.

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of:

selective mating.

Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it:

discourages progressive efforts to change common social practices.

Compared to men, women are more likely to:

be less accepting of casual sex.

Men judge women as especially attractive if:

they appear youthful, and women judge men as especially attractive if they appear mature.

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are:

fraternal twins who were raised apart.

Identical twins originate from the fertilization of:

a single egg cell by a single sperm cell.

Compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in extraversion.

less; less

Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in:

all of the alternatives.

Evolutionary psychologists would be least likely to predict that:

a woman would engage in casual sex with many male partners.

Brittla spends a lot of money on cosmetics and expensive clothing in order to attract a desirable mate. According to evolutionary psychologists, Brittla's behavior is a product of:

genetic predispositions.

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:

natural selection.

Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

personality traits

Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:

collectivism

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:

person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups.

Collectivist cultures:

are characterized by all of the alternatives.

Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.

independence; interdependence

Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by:

individualism

When looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, women usually turn to ________ and men usually turn to ________.

women; women

In considering gender differences, it is helpful to remember that:

genetic similarities between the genders are much greater than genetic differences.

Which of the following would you most likely observe on extended visits to foreign countries?

more men than women engaged in fighting and aggressive encounters.

During the course of a conversation between Lola, Martha, and Gus, which of the following events is most likely to occur?

Gus interrupts Lola.

Women are more likely than men to:

tend and befriend.

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called:

gender-typing.

Ten-year-old Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking clothes because she wants to appear ladylike. This best illustrates the impact of:

gender-typing.

A boy who consistently exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behavior patterns demonstrates the impact of:

gender-typing.

Gender identity refers to:

the sense of being male or female.

Children's tendency to classify behavior and personality traits in terms of masculine and feminine categories is of most direct relevance to:

gender schema theory.

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender:

schemas.

Those who study cultural influences on behavior are most likely to highlight the importance of:

norms.

The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of:

culture.

When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of:

gender roles.

The social roles assigned to women and men:

differ widely across cultures.

People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing:

family loyalty.

The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in cultures characterized by:

individualism

Men and women are most likely to differ in their:

aggressiveness

In everyday behavior, men are less likely than women to:

smile at others.

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their:

social relationships.

Which theory states that gender becomes a lens through which children view their experiences?

gender schema theory

The fact that language forces children age 2 and older to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gender is most consistent with which theory of how gender-linked behaviors develop?

gender schema theory

When his son cries because another child has taken his favorite toy, Brandon admonishes him by saying, "Big boys don't cry." Evidently, Brandon is an advocate of ________ in accounting for the development of gender-linked behaviors.

social learning theory

Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi's contribution to the gender-typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by:

social learning theorists.

The traditions of a culture are passed from one generation to the next by means of:

norms.

Personal space refers to:

the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.

Gender role refers to:

a set of expected behaviors for males and females.

Rod has always felt pressure to be the driver when traveling in a car with Sue because he learned that this was expected of men. Rod's feelings illustrate the influence of:

gender roles.

Level: Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be:

irritable and unpredictable

An infant's temperament refers most directly to its

emotional excitability

Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by:

natural selection

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of:

natural selection

Of the following, the best way to separate the effects of genes and environment in research is to study:

identical twins raised in different environments

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:

social harmony

Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with

collectivism

Social learning theorists emphasize that:

observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process.

Children who are raised by parents who discourage traditional gender-typing:

nevertheless organized themselves into "girl worlds" and "boy worlds."

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:

norms.

Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a:

role

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