Computer ____ entails having the knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.
A(n) ____ device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on ____ media such as hard disks, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, and on USB flash drives, optical discs, and memory cards.
A(n) ____ device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers.
All of the following are advantages of using computers EXCEPT ____.
impact on labor force
A(n) ____ is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.
A(n) ____ is a collection of computers and devices connected together, as shown in the accompanying figure, via communications devices and transmission media.
Networks, such as that pictured in the accompanying figure, allow computers to share ____, such as hardware, software, data, and information.
The ____ is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
____ is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
____ consist(s) of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it.
With a(n) ____, users interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons.
Two categories of software are ____.
system software and application software
____ conveys meaning and is useful to people.
A(n) ____ device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer.
A ____ provides personal organizer functions such as a calendar, appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad.
A(n) ____ message is a real-time Internet communication, where you exchange messages with other connected users.
Some people refer to the series of input, process, output, and storage activities of a computer as the ____ processing cycle.
A(n) ____ computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.
All of the following are categories of users EXCEPT ____.
Many large companies use the term, ____ computing, to refer to the huge network of computers that meets their diverse computing needs.
In a large business, the employees in the ____ department keep the computers and the network running.
A(n) ____ is a system that attempts to imitate the behavior of the human brain.
The ____ is the electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.
____ are two of the more widely accessed Internet services.
The World Wide Web and e-mail
The ____ consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents.
The ____ is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
A Web ____ is a collection of related Web pages and associated items, such as documents and pictures, stored on a Web server.
A(n) ____ is application software that allows users to access and view Web pages.
To find a Web page, the user of a resource like that in the accompanying figure, would simply enter a word or phrase, called ____, in the search engine's text box.
A(n) ____ is a Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location.
The term ____ refers to any application that combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video, and/or virtual reality.
A(n) ____ is a digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph.
On a Web page, a(n) ____ is a small version of a larger graphic.
The ____ format reduces an audio file to about one-tenth of its original size, while preserving much of the original quality of the sound.
____ is the process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow, which allows users to access and use a file while it is transmitting.
____ is the use of computers to simulate a real or imagined environment that appears as three-dimensional (3-D) space.
The Internet has its roots in ____, a network that became functional in 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers across the United States.
The ____ defines a popular video compression standard.
Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG)
A(n) ____ is a program that extends the capability of a browser.
____ occurs when one consumer sells directly to another consumer, such as in an online auction.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce
____ oversees research related to the Internet.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
An e-mail ____ is a combination of user name and domain name that identifies a user so he or she can receive Internet e-mail.
A(n) ____ is a computer program that can damage files and the operating system.
____ is a real-time Internet communications service that notifies users when one or more people are online and then allows them to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room.
____ enables users to speak to other users over the Internet.
____ is the process of transferring documents, graphics, and other objects from a computer to a server on the Internet.
Although it is an inexpensive way for users to connect to the Internet, ____ is slower-speed technology.
a dial-up connection
____ is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet; that is, it is the conduct expected of individuals while online.
____ is an unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup article sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
____ software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.
A(n) ____ is a window that provides information, presents available options, or requests a response.
____ software assists people in becoming more effective and efficient while performing their daily business activities.
____ software allows users to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics.
Word processing software includes a(n) ____, which reviews the spelling of individual words, sections of a document, or the entire document.
A font ____, such as bold, italic, and underline in the accompanying figure, adds emphasis to a font.
A(n) ____, such as Cambria and Calibri in the accompanying figure, is a name assigned to a specific design of characters.
____ software is software that allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations on the data.
When using spreadsheet software, the rows and columns collectively are called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ is the intersection of a column and row in a worksheet.
Many worksheet cells contain a number that can be used in a calculation, called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ performs calculations on the data in a worksheet and displays the resulting value in a cell.
When using spreadsheet software like that in the accompanying figure, each worksheet can have more than ____ cells.
In the Windows operating system, as shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ is an on-screen work area that has a graphical user interface.
A(n) ____ is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data.
A(n) ____ is a request for specific data from a database.
____ software allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group.
To help organize a presentation, you can view ____ versions of all the slides similarly to how 35mm slides look on a photographer's light table.
A software ____ is a collection of individual programs sold as a single package.
A file is ____.
a named collection of stored data, instructions, or information
When you click Paint in the Accessories list, Windows loads the Paint program instructions from the computer's hard disk into ____.
A(n) ____ contains a list of commands from which a user makes selections.
A ____ is an instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action.
____________________ stores the data being processed and the resulting information.
On ____, the electronic components and most storage devices are part of the system unit and other devices, such as the keyboard, mouse, and monitor, normally occupy space outside the system unit.
desktop personal computers
A(n) ____ processor is a chip with two or more separate processor cores.
The ____ unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
The ____ is the component of the processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
Together, the four basic operations or a processor (fetching, decoding, executing, and storing) comprise a(n) ____ cycle.
With ____, the processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction.
____ consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data (information).
The ____ unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data.
____ is the most common type of volatile memory.
Today's computers support ____, which means the computer automatically can configure adapter cards like the one in the accompanying figure and other peripherals as users install them.
Plug and Play
A(n) ____, such as a keyboard or printer, is a device that connects to the system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer.
A computer ____ is a small piece of semi-conducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched.
A ____ port was formerly referred to as an IEEE 1394 port
Bluetooth technology is ____.
an alternative to IrDA that uses radio waves to transmit data between two device
A(n) ____, which is contained on an integrated circuit, can act as an electronic switch that opens or closes the circuit for electrical charges.
The ____ interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer.
A program is ____.
a series of instructions that tells a computer what to do and how to do it
The ____ is a symbol on the screen, usually a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the next character typed will display.
To fit in notebook and many handheld computers, the keyboards usually are ____.
smaller and have fewer keys
A(n) ____ keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries.
____ is any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer.
A(n) ____ mouse, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, uses devices that emit and sense light to detect movement.
A(n) ____ is a touch-sensitive display device that users interact with by touching the screen with a finger
Manufacturers often use ____ to represent the resolution of a digital camera like the one shown in the accompanying figure.
pixels per inch (ppi)
A(n) ____ device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data or instructions (programs, commands, and user responses) into a computer.
A(n) ____ is an input device that contains keys users press to enter data into a computer.
A computer ____ risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability.
____ is a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network.
A personal ____ is a utility program that detects and protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized access.
Many Web sites, like that in the accompanying figure, require a user to enter a user ____, which is a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers.
Many Web sites, like that in the accompanying figure, require a user to enter a ____, which is a private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources.
Digital ____ is the discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
Software ____ occurs when someone steals software media, intentionally erases software programs, or illegally copies a software program.
Software ____ is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software.
A(n) ____ certificate is a notice that guarantees a user or Web site is legitimate.
When a mobile user connects to a main office using a standard Internet connection, a ____ provides the mobile user with a secure connection to the company network server.
virtual private network (VPN)
A momentary overvoltage, called a ____, occurs when the increase in power lasts for less than one millisecond (one thousandth of a second).
____, which provides encryption of all data that passes between a client and an Internet server, requires only that the client has a digital certificate.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
A(n) ____ is a device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of power.
To ____ a file means to make a copy of it.
A(n) ____ is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.
A(n) ____ network, the most recent network standard, conforms to the government security standards and uses more sophisticated encryption techniques than WPA.
Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and rootkits are classified as ____, which are programs that act without a user's knowledge and deliberately alter the computer's operations.
____ is an applied science devoted to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace.
Symptoms of a user with computer addiction include all of the following except ____.
irritable when at the computer
____ rights are the rights to which creators are entitled for their work.
A ____ is a small text file that a Web server stores on a user's computer.
____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, is an unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
Web sites use a ____ to keep track of items in a user's shopping cart.
____ is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain a user's personal and financial information.
As shown in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____ program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.
Instead of these, some users access the Internet through mobile wireless networks.
Transmission media that uses wire, cable, and other tangible materials to send communications signals.
Allows participants to have the ability to open a separate window and type messages to one another.
Kind of network that is sometimes called a file sharing network.
Transmission media that sends communications signals through the air or space using radio, microwave, and infrared signals.
Consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers.
A network standard that specifies how two devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other.
Kind of cable designed to reduce noise.
This kind of device contains a small chip that allows it to communicate with other similar devices.
Mobile computers and devices, such as a mouse, printer, and smart phone, often have this kind of port to enable the transfer of data from one device to another using light waves.
A wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances.
Type of lines that can be either analog or digital.
A dial-up modem usually is in this form, which is inserted in an expansion slot on a computer's motherboard.
A form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications.
To prevent unauthorized users from accessing files and computers, many routers are protected by these.
Category of cellular transmission that transmits digital data at speeds from 9.6 Kbps to 19.2 Kbps.
Examples of standards in this category include GSM and UMTS.
Can be negatively affected by the distance between two points, the type of transmission media, and the number of nodes through which data must travel.
The core of this kind of cable consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
Category of cellular transmission that transmits digital data at speeds up to 15 Mbps.
Computer communications describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer ____.
A ____ is a wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices.
____ is a software application that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network.
A communications ____ is a transmission media on which data, instructions, or information travel.
A ____ is a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media.
As shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ is a network that covers a large geographic area, such as a city, country, or the world, using a communications channel that combines many types of media.
wide area network (WAN)
On a(n) ____ network, such as that illustrated in the accompanying figure, one or more computers act as a server and the other computers on the network request services from the server.
On a network such as the one illustrated in the accompanying figure, the ____ are the computers and mobile devices on the network that rely on the server for its resources.
A(n) ____ network is a simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers.
A network ____ refers to the layout of the computers and devices in a communications network.
On a network such as the one illustrated in the accompanying figure, the central device that provides a common connection point for nodes on the network is called the ____.
Two examples of ____ are cable television lines and telephone lines
Developed by IEEE, ____ is a series of network standards that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other.
The term ____ identifies any network based on the 802.11 family of standards.
A type of communications device that connects a communications channel to a sending or receiving device is a ____.
A wireless ____ point is a central communications device that allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired network.
A ____ is a communications device that connects multiple computers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network.
____ is a conversation that takes place over the Internet using a telephone connected to a computer, mobile device, or telephone adapter.
Each networked computer in a house can ____.
1. share peripherals such as a printer, scanner, external hard disk, or optical disc drive
2. share a single high-speed Internet connection
3. access files and programs on other computers in the house
The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel sometimes is called the ____.
Physical transmission media used in communications include all of the following except ____.
broadcast radio cable
____ cable consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: an insulating material, a woven or braided metal, and a plastic outer coating.
The core of a(n) ____ cable consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.