AP United States History Key Words Review

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James Oglethorpe

established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors

The Enlightenment

emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

Benjamin Franklin

connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

The Great Awakening

began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities

George Whitefield

powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity

Jonathan Edwards

Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

New Lights vs. Old Lights

New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other

Albany Plan of Union

colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect

French and Indian War

French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britain

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth

Salutary Neglect

Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements

Writs of Assistance

search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis

Townshend Act (1767)

similar to Navigation; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries

Sugar Act

increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs

Stamp Act

taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives

Stamp Act Congress

held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

Virginia Resolves

"no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry

Currency Act

prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy

Virtual Representation

all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote

The Loyal Nine

group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city

Sons of Liberty

organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation

Declaratory Act

allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say

Boston Massacre

British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter

Committees of Correspondence

committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self¬government, cooperation between colonies

Tea Act (1773)

intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)

Boston Tea Party

peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians

Quebec Acts

former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony

Suffolk Resolves

organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain

Olive Branch Petition

politely demanded from the king a cease¬fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts,. guarantee of American rights

Thomas Paine, Common Sense

stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions

George Washington

American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule

Whigs (Patriots)

most numerous in New England, fought for independence

Tories (Loyalists)

fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy

British strengths and weaknesses

British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt

Colonial strengths and weaknesses

fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles

Battle of Saratoga

American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne

Valley Forge

scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben

Battle of Yorktown

last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies

Treaty of Paris (1783)

full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland

American society during the Revolution

British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved

Federalists and Republicans

the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments

Washington's Farewell Address

warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency

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