APES Chapter 4 test

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Natural Selection

Within a popultion and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generation

The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by

the changing of location of continents causing some species to be geographically isolated from others

The Bible

Is the only thing that evidence for evolution of life does not come from

A false statement

By definition the fittest animals are the strongest and the largest animals

Plants, herbivores, pollinators, flowers, plant roots, fungi, parasites, and hosts [All answers]

Coevolution can involve the interaction of--

10 million years

It takes on the order of _____ years for adaptive radiations to rebuild biological diversity after a mass extinction

Way of life

An organism's nich is analogous to its....

Changes in weather

Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by...

Evolution

A change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called...

The location where a species lives

An ecologicall niche includes all of the following except...

Speciation and extinction

Biodiversity is believed to be the result of...

Earth has experienced over a dozen mass extinctions

Which of the following statements about extinction is false...

A source of new genetic material

Mutations are...

All are true

Which of the following are true? New species can arise when individuals of two distinct species crossbreed to produce a hybrid, genetic information can be exchanged when one species feeds upon' infects' or comes into close contact with another species, speciation through hybridization and gene transfer can occur rapidly when compared to millions of years for convential Darwinian evolution through natural selection

X rays, radioactivity, certain chemicals, ultraviolet light, can all be

Causes of mutations

Anaerobic prokaryotes-photosynthetic prokaryotes-aerobic prokaryotes-eukaryotes-multicellular organisms

Most likely sequence for biological evolution of life is...

It can only eat one type of food

A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because

Convergent evolution

Geological isolation is least likely to give rise to...

Divergent evolution

The process which one species evolves into a variety of species is called...

Adaptation

Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called...

Reproduction must be asexual

If not a condition necessaryfor biological evolution to occur

A punctuated equilibrium hypothesis

Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relativity little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as...

Coevolution

The change of gene pool of one species leads to the change of the gene pool of another species...

A steady state hypothesis

Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as...

False

The fossil record represents 99% of all species that have ever existed

True

When local environmental conditions change, species may become extinct through background extinction

True

Selective breeding is a method of artificial selection

False

Geographic isolation and reproductive isolation are the two processes that affect the number and types of species on earth

False

In speciation, two species interbreed to form one new species

True

Exctinction is the permanent loss of genetic diversity

True

Mutations are beneficial

False

Evolution comes about only through the process of natural selection

True

Survival of the fittest refers to those individuals that leave the most offspring

True

Genetic engineering involves making a modified gene, making a transgenic cell, and then growing a genetically altered organism

Biopharming

Use of genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs.

Coevolution

Two or more species interacting and applying selective pressures on each other that can lead each to undergo adaptations

Gene splicing

the insertion of a foreign gene into an organism to give it a benefitial genetic trait

Mass extinction

We are currently on the sixth of these

Transgenic organism

Organisms that have been genetically engineered by use of recombinant DNA technology

Geographic isolation

Results in divergent evolution

Specialist species

Species with a narrow ecological niche

Differential reproduction

The occurrence in whcih individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more live offspring than do organisms without such traits

Background extinction

The normal extinction of various species from changes in local environmental conditions

Fundamental niche

The full potential range of physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if it does not face competition from any other species

Realized niche

In order to survive and avoid competition for resources, the are within a particular community or ecosystem actually utilized by an organism

Generalist species

Organism with broad ecological niche

Adaptation

Any genetically controlled structural, physiological, or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survvive and reproduce under a given set of environmenta conditions

Artificial selection

Selective breeding

Evolution

A change in the genetic structure of a population over time

Mutation

Random changes in the structure/number of DNA molecules in a cell

Natural selection

Process by which a particular benefitical gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes

Mutagen

Chemical or form of radiation that causes inheritable changes in DNA

Endemic species

Organism found only within one area

Ecological niche

Total way of life or role of a species within an ecosystem

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.

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