8th Grade Social Studies for STAAR

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colonialism

establishment of settlers and traders from a nation in an area outside the nation's boundaries; European nations established colonial empires for "gold, god, and glory" (economic, religious, and political or social reasons)

1607

first permanent British settlement in North America was founded at Jamestown, Virginia

1620

Pilgrims signed Mayflower Compact and arrived in Plymouth Colony

1733

there were 13 British colonies

political competition

European rivalries caused nations to compete with each other to establish colonial empires throughout the world

religious freedom

some colonies were founded for religious reform or to escape religious persecution

economic gain

some colonies were founded as business ventures by charter companies funded by private investors

social

some colonies laws created a different kind of society

indentured servant

person who worked a set number of years without wages in exchange for their passage

Puritans

to reform or purify Church of England

Pilgrims

to escape persecution and separate from Church of England

Quakers

to escape religious persecution in Europe

Catholics

to escape religious persecution in England

plantation system

plantations large farms produced cash crops for export including tobacco indigo and rice required much more than one family's labor

indentured servants

conditions in Europe improved fewer servants

transatlantic slave trade

triangular trade route moved slaves cash crops and manufactured goods among European, West African, and colonial ports

cultural conflicts and constributions

fur traders and settlers conflicted with French and Indians in west establishment of colonies with more political, religious freedoms treaty between Penn and Indians

French and Indian War

British won in 1759 France ceded land

New England Colonies: human characteristics

settled mostly by white Puritians who fled Europe for religious reasons mostly intolerant of other religious strong work ethic

New England Colonies: geography

poor farm land rocky hilly nad cold climate rich fishing and timber resources

New England Colonies: economy

ship building fishing sailing and crafts

Middle Colonies: human characteristics

settled mostly by white Protestants of different faiths for religious and economic reasons

Middle Colonies:geography

good farm land fur resources and cool climate

Middle Colonies:economy

farming, furs

Southern Colonies: human characteristics

settled mostly for economic reasons slave population grew beginning in late 17th century

Southern Colonies: geography

good farm land, warm climate

Southern Colonies: economy

agrarian; many small farms; plantations exported cash crops

first great awakening

emotional sermons at revival meetings in 1730s made faith more personal for many whites and blacks

representative government

power and right to govern come from the people who choose leaders to make and enforce the law on their behalf

Enlightenment

philosophy of reason thinking as guide for society

Montesquieu

argued for separation of powers executive legislative and judicial

John Locke

argued for government by consent of the governed and the natural rights of men

Magna Carta

British power shared by monarchy and Parliment

English Bill of Rights

British protected individual rights elected Parliment must approve taxes

Mayflower Compact

plan for self-government signed by Pilgrims in 1620 promised to obey laws for the good of the colony

Virginia House of Burgessess

first elected lawmaking body group in colonies; colonial legistlatures shared power with royal governors

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

first example of a constitution in the colonies, led by Thomas Hooker; expanded right to vote to all freemen

William Penn

provided leadership for of self-government based on personal virtues and Quaker religious beliefs

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