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CAS100A first exam review flash card set

audience

who the speech is presented to

exigence

problem/ urgent need that can be corrected through speech/ discourse

constraints

things that may hinder the speaker's ability to give a speech

fitting response

speech that is appropriate to the occasion

types of constraints

topical, audience, and contextual

sender

person who creates and transmits a message to begin the communication process

feedback

the response sent back to the sender by the receiver

meanings

life experiences, thoughts, feelings, etc. Helps sender to produce a message

signs

Involuntary behaviors, emotional reactions, etc. Not consciously encoded by the sender

context

extraneous factors that lay the foundation for the communication process to occur (ex: occasion, time, etc.)

brainstorm

process of writing out topic ideas and other lines of thought without critically evaluating ideas; just to get things down on paper

credible sources

library databases, online newspapers, google, google scholar, the blog, etc.

introduction requirements

attention getting statement, orienting material, thesis statement, credibility statement, preview statement, and transition

organizational patterns

chronological, cause/effect, narrative, topical/categorical, need/plan/advantages, etc.

supporting materials

definitions, descriptions, testimony, visual aids, illustration, factual example, hypothetical example, analogy, and statistics

personification

gives human traits to animal, object, or abstract idea

keyword/speaking outline

outline you should be delivering your speech with in class

allusion

stylistic device that makes reference to a myth, value, story, piece of art, important document, etc.

types of speaking

impromptu, memorized, manuscript, and extemporaneous

delivery characteristics

physical (appearance, facial expressions, hand gestures, movement, posture, eye contact, etc.) and vocal.verbal (tone, pace, volume, inflection, etc.)

full-sentence outline

complete outline that includes sources, etc.

logos

describe the line of quality reasoning (logic) used in speech, as well as to describe the use of good sources and argument

pathos

emotional appeals by the speaker

visual aid

supplement that can be used to bolster argument, easily present info, induce logos, ethos, pathos

demographic

characteristic to think about when conducting audience analysis. ex: age, gender, race, class, etc.

psychographic

characteristic to think about when conducting audience analysis. ex: political beliefs, religious beliefs, values, etc.

meaning

central idea you want to get across

encoding

process of finding and selecting symbols that represents meaning

symbol

meanings you want to convey by deliberate choice, consciously and voluntarily

noise

something that distracts the message

decoding

processing message, interpreting message

attitude

basic evaluations of people, ideas, object, and events

beliefs

the way people perceive reality (description)

values

judgement of good vs bad in life

canons

Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, Delivery

alliteration

repeats same beginning sound of at least two sounds

metaphors

similarities

allusion

makes reference to another....

graphs

visual numerical data

charts

describe process

visual arts

5 bullet points, 5 words across, quote gets its own slide, consistent, and simple

persuasion

using reasoning to make the audience agree with you

motivation

agitate audience to do something

reasoning

draw valid conclusions from argument

argument

influence people's beliefs

claim

states position, open to question

warrant

explain why/how evidence supports claim, connects data

evidence

support claim

reasoning

process of drawing valid conclusion

inductive reasoning

specific to general

deductive reasoning

general to specific

either or/ false dilemma

gives only two choices of an issue (with or against us)

red herring

claim irrelevant to the discussion

circular argument

claim just restates with different words

ad hominem

personal attack

slippery slope

reject argument because it will set off domino effect. Will only work in case of a historical example

inappropriate emotional appeals

draw on emotions to distract from logic

faulty cause

thinks one event causes another just because of order

non sequitur

does not make sense, conclusion does not follow the claims

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