Ch 11 -15

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30 terms · Study Guide Quiz #4

A Drug

: any substance, other than food, that affects bodily functions and structures when into the body

Alcohol Classification

a depressant

Alcohol Facts

 A typical drink reaches the bloodstream in 15 minutes and rises to peak concentration in about 1 hour
 It leaves the body after metabolism by the liver
 Light alcohol intake is associated with lower mortality than abstinence, but mortality rates increase with the amount of alcohol consumed
 It is a diuretic and lowers
 body temperature
 7 calories per gram and stimulates the appetite

Alcohol Poisoning

excessive alcohol consumption that can depress the nerves that control involuntary action, such as breathing and gag reflex

Antabuse

first medicine approved for the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence

Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Levels

0.08% legal limit
0.20% individual may pass out
0.30% individual may go into a coma
0.40% individual may die

Caffeine:

widely used psychoactive (mind-affecting) drug in the world. As a stimulant, relieves drowsiness helps perform in repetitive tasks, and improves the capacity for work

Cigarette Compounds

o Over 400 compounds and toxic substances.
o Carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, acetone, cadmium, pyridine, benzene, phenol, acrolin, vinyl chloride, hydrogen cyanide and sulfide, ammonia, and formaldehyde
o The tar contains numerous cancer-causing particles (carcinogens) that remain in the lungs

Common Cold - Cause

Cause:
Spread by coughs, sneezes, and touching something just handled by a cold sufferer
Spread by Rhinoviruses causing symptoms above the neck
Stuffy nose, headache and runny nose
Adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, and coronaviruses are more likely to get into the bronchi and trachea and cause more fever and bronchitis

Common Cold

Prevention:
Wash your hands, replace your toothbrush regularly, regular exercise, avoid stress
Limit Aspirin, Acetaminophen (Tylenol), and Ibuprofen
Suppresses important antibodies and increases symptoms
Watch for drowsiness
Limit pseudoephedrine due to high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, or thyroid disorders

Diabetes - Gestational

(develops during pregnancy) often linked to family history - greater risk of developing diabetes later in life

Diabetes - Type 1

Type 1: (insulin therapy is required) the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas

Diabetes --Type 2

Type 2: (90% of all diabetes cases) the pancreas does not make enough insulin (insufficient insulin) or the body does not use insulin correctly (insulin resistance)

Drug Abuse

the excessive use of a drug In a manner inconsistent with accepted medical practice

Drug Misuse

the use of a drug for a purpose (or person) other than that for which it was medically intended.

Hallucinogens

: a drug that causes hallucinations

Heart Disease - Controls

Controls:
Psychosocial Factors
Stress and depression can increase risk of plaque build-up, which may directly trigger a heart attack in people with underlying heart disease
Drug Use Does Negatively Affect Heart Health
Amphetamines
Cocaine
Ecstasy
Heroin and Morphine
LSD
Psychoactive mushrooms

Heart Disease -Non~controls

Non-controls:
Heredity
Increased risk if parents, siblings, or other close relatives suffered heart attacks before age 50
Race and Ethnicity (African Americans)
Twice as likely to develop high blood pressure as whites
Suffer strokes at an earlier age and of greater severity.
Black women are twice as likely to suffer heart attacks and die from heart disease as white women

Hosts

: a person or population that contracts one or more pathogenic agents in an environment

How the body protects itself

 Unbroken skin keeps most invaders out
 Tears, sweat, skin oils, saliva, and mucus have chemicals that kill bacteria
 Cilia (tiny hairs) move "infected" mucus to the back of the throat to be swallowed and destroyed by the digestive system
 Lymphatic system (part of the immune system) the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes (gland that store protective cells) and lymph vessels
 More than a dozen white blood cells (Lymphocytes)

Hypertension

; high blood pressure occurring when the blood exerts excessive pressure against the arterial walls

Infection Process

1. Exposure
2. Infection
3. Incubation period
4. Prodromal (battle) period
5. Clinical stage
6. Recovery or relapse
7. termination

Mainstream Smoke

: the smoke inhaled directly by smoking a cigarette

Marijuana

: the drug derived from the cannabis plant, containing the psychoactive ingredient THC, which causes a mild sense of euphoria when inhaled or eaten

Nicotine

a dangerous colorless, only compound, highly addictive physical and psychological stimulant

Pathogens

a microorganism that produces disease

Sidestream smoke

the smoke emitted by a burning cigarette and breathed by everyone in a closed room, including the smoker, contains more tar and nicotine than mainstream smoke.

Smokeless Tobacco

snuff, chewing tobacco

Tar

: a thick, sticky dark fluid produced by the burning of tobacco, made up of several hundred different chemicals, many of them poisonous, some of the carcinogenic

Tumors - Benign and Malignant

 Benign: slightly abnormal tumors that are not considered life-threating
 Malignant: cancerous tumors

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