partial degradation of sugars without the use of oxygen.
Coenzyme which transfers hydrogen ions in the transport chain.
Powered by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain.
Substrate level phosphorylation
ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosophate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.
Remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen that are proteins.
the protein complex that actually makes ATP from ADP.
Moving the hydrogen ion gradient across the cell membrane to create ATP.
Proton motive force
Emphasizing the capacity of the gradient to do work.
Pyruvate is converted into ethonal (ethyl group)
Lactic Acid fermetation
Pyruvate is redued directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product.
Organisms including yeast and bacteria can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or resperation.
Breaks fatty acid to two carbon fragments, which enter citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.