The French and Indian War
In North American primarily fought between Britain and France from 1754-1763 for colonial dominance in North America.
American colonists w/ British soldiers & French w/ Native American tribes
The Seven Years War
Results of the French and Indian War
1. France gave up its North American Empire.
2. England now dominated lands east of the Mississippi as well as parts of Canada.
3.Pivotal point in relationship between Great Britain and the American Colonies because it led GB to impose revenue taxes on the Colonies, GB wanted colonists to pay them back
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
-Part of Treaty of Paris that ended war
-Result of Pontiac's Rebellion to reduce friction between
Grenville Acts (5)
Group of acts that included the Sugar Act, which lowered tariffs on sugar while increasing tariffs on molasses, The Currency Act, which made the colonists use British currency, the Stamp Act, which forced colonists to place stamps on all official documents, the Quartering Act, which required the colonists to house, clothe, and feed British troops, and the Tea Act, which placed taxes on tea.
The Stamp Act
Required certain goods to bear an official stamp showing that the owner had paid his or her tax. Many of these items were paper goods, such as legal documents and licenses, newspapers, leaflets, and even playing cards. .
The Townshend Acts
Series of 1767 laws imposed taxes on lead, paints, and tea.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
British occupation force in Boston marched to the nearby town of Concord, Massachusetts, to seize a colonial militia arsenal. Militiamen of Lexington and Concord intercepted them and attacked.
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British.
Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn.
The first shot—the so-called "shot heard round the world" made famous by poet Ralph Waldo Emerson—was one of many that hounded the British and forced them to retreat to Boston. Thousands of militiamen from nearby colonies flocked to Boston to assist.
The Declaration of Independence
the congressmen voted on July 2, 1776, to declare their independence. Thomas Jefferson, a young lawyer from Virginia, drafted the Declaration of Independence. The United States was born.
A prominent Boston lawyer who first became famous for defending the British soldiers accused of murdering five civilians in the Boston Massacre. Adams was a delegate from Massachusetts in the Continental Congresses, where he rejected proposals for reconciliation with Britain. He served as vice president to George Washington and was president of the United States from 1797 to 1801
A Philadelphia printer, inventor, and patriot. Franklin drew the famous "Join or Die" political cartoon for the Albany Congress. He was also a delegate for the Second Continental Congress and a member of the committee responsible for helping to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
King George III
King of Great Britain during the American Revolution. George III inherited the throne at the age of twelve. He ruled Britain throughout the Seven Years' War, the French and Indian War, the American Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812. After the conclusion of the French and Indian War, his popularity declined in the American colonies. In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson vilifies George III and argues that his neglect and misuse of the American colonies justified their revolution.
. In 1776, he drafted the Declaration of Independence, which justified American independence from Britain. Later, he served as the first secretary of state under President George Washington and as vice president to John Adams. Jefferson then was elected president himself in 1800 and 1804.
A radical philosopher who strongly supported republicanism and civic virtue. Paine's 1776 pamphlet Common Sense convinced thousands to rebel against the "royal brute," King George III.
A Virginia planter and militia officer who eventually became the first president of the United States. Washington participated in the first engagement of the French and Indian War in 1754 and later became commander in chief of the American forces during the Revolutionary War. In 1789, he became president of the United States. Although Washington actually lost most of the military battles he fought, his leadership skills were unparalleled and were integral to the creation of the United States.
Battle of Saratoga
A 1777 British defeat that was a major turning point in the Revolutionary War. The defeat convinced the French to ally themselves with the United States and enter the war against Britain. Most historians agree that without help from France, the United States could not have won the war.
An incident that occurred on March 5, 1770, when a mob of angry Bostonians began throwing rocks and sticks at the British troops who were occupying the city. The troops shot several members of the crowd, killing five. Patriots throughout the colonies dubbed the incident a "massacre" and used it to fuel anti-British sentiment.
An economic theory predominant in the 1700s that stipulated that nations should amass wealth in order to increase their power. Under mercantilism, the European powers sought new colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia because they wanted sources of cheap natural resources such as gold, cotton, timber, tobacco, sugarcane, and furs. They shipped these materials back to Europe and converted them into manufactured goods, which they resold to the colonists at high prices.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
British ultimately emerged victorious, they suffered over 1,000 casualties, prompting British officials to take the colonial unrest far more seriously than they had previously. The engagement led King George III to declare officially that the colonies were in a state of rebellion. Any hope of reconciliation and a return to the pre-1763 status quo had vanished.
The Revolutionary War: 1775 through1783 Events
- 1775 Battle of Lexington and Concord Second
- 1776 Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence
1777 Battle of Saratoga
1778 France and United States form Franco-American Alliance
1779 Spain enters war against Britain
1779 Spain enters war against Britain
1781 British forces under Cornwallis surrender to Washington at Yorktown
1783 Peace of Paris signed to end war
When war erupted in 1775, it seemed clear that Britain would win. It had a large, well-organized land army, and the Royal Navy was unmatched on the sea. Many of the British troops in the Revolutionary War were veterans who had fought in the French and Indian War. On the other hand, the Americans had only a collection of undisciplined militiamen who had never fought before. The American navy was small and no match for the thousand ships in the royal fleet. The state of the army did improve after George Washington whipped the Continental Army into a professional fighting force, but the odds still seemed heavily stacked in Britain's favor.
Nonetheless, the Americans believed that they did have a strong chance of success. They had a lot at stake: unlike the British, they were fighting on their home turf to protect their own homes and families. Perhaps most important, they were also fighting a popular war—a majority of the colonists were patriots who strongly supported the fight for independence. Finally, though most Americans had no previous military experience, their militia units were usually close-knit bands of men, often neighbors, who served together in defense of their own homes. They elected their own officers—usually men who did have some military training but who also knew the territory well. This native officer corps was a great source of strength, and as a result, American morale was generally higher than morale in the Royal Army.
The Peace of Paris
The war came to an official close in September 1783, when Britain, the United States, France, and Spain negotiated the Peace of Paris. The treaty granted vast tracts of western lands to the Americans and recognized the United States as a new and independent country. The last British forces departed New York in November 1783, leaving the American government in full control of the new nation.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution. Federalists wanted strong central government and weaker state, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights - support constitution
Opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states - Thomas Jefferson
Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, complained constitution failed to protect basic liberties, for small farmers etc., shorter terms
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments to the Constitution - Added by the Federalists to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Hamilton's economic plan
federalist plan for americans economic growth, which laid the groundwork for america's industrialization, Tax on whiskey, protective tariff, national bank, pay off debts to individuals and states...increasing foreign trade & protecting small businesses.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Alien and Sedition Act
Election of 1800
Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another
Lewis and Clark expedition
The Embargo of 1807
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Wanted national bank to assume all of the state's debts, sell bonds to pay off existing debt to all bondholders
War of 1812
American victory over british forces in America and Canada. fought both british and native americans in canada, us, and fla.The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Differences between english and french colonies
english crown allowed religious dissenters to come to the Americas but french didnt, french had few colonies, less successful
warned European nations not to get involved in the politcal matters in central and south America. intended to show that the US was idea the only country that could influence the politcal matters, didnt want the new republican gvmts of south america (free nations) to become european colonies again
The doctrine was an important expression of the growing nationalism in the U.S. in the 1820's, and it established the idea of the U.S. as the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere.
Agreement by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a fee state. drew imaginary line at 36 deg north latitude dividing the Louisiana territory into north and south.
Compromise of 1850
Another stopgap measure along the lines of the Missouri Compromise. This one abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia but bound Congress to create became the Fugitive Slave Law. It also admitted California as a free state and separately organized the territories of Utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery.
Ulysses S. Grant
18th President of the United States. A Civil War hero, he served two terms in the White House but was known more for the scandals that happened during his watch than his ability as a chief executive.
Escaped slave, leader of the abolitionist movement, antislavery writing
William Lloyd Garrison
pioneering abolitionist, newspaper The Liberator gathered support for the cause. 1832 formed the first society for the immediate abolition of slavery
Violent abolitionist who wanted to free the slaves at all costs. He took matters in his own hands by leading a band of determined patriots on a mission to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. They wanted to distribute the weapons there to slaves and anyone else who wanted to rise up against slavery.
Nurse who carried supplies to soldiers and also nursed injured soldiers during the Civil War. In 1864, she was appointed superintendent of nurses for the Army of the James. She is best known for establishing the American branch of the Red Cross, in 1881.
Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854
Allowed Citizens of a state to vote on if they would be a free or slave state
Susan B Anthony
leader of the movement to grant american women the right to vote, also with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. National convention in Seneca Falls NY 1848
W.E.B. Du Bois
American sociologist, the most important black protest leader in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. He shared in the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909
Hispanic American labor leader who organized the first effective union of farm workers
Who was the cold war between and years
US and Russia 1946
What year did the Korean War begin
Vietnam War years
1961-1973 (cuban missile crisis in 1962)
example of concurrent power and define
levying of taxes
-Concurrent powers are shared by both the State and the federal government.
war of 1812 is ended by what treaty
treaty of Ghent
World War I years
july 1914-nov 1918
in 1917 us enters
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
A member of a people inhabiting the Arctic (northern Canada or Greenland or Alaska or eastern Siberia)
A Native American, built cliff dwellings, who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico
Native American people that formerly inhabited the northwestern coastal region of North America
Are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee). Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian-language family. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located.
A tribe of Native Americans who inhabited Florida.
Lost war and were removed to west of the Mississippi in 1840s.
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state,
Were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose use of the corn/beans/squash agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population that made war against other Algonquian peoples
The league of Indian tribes in the Northeast that fought with the English in the French-Indian War and supported the Loyalists in the America Revolution. The nations who joined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Mohawk. Once they ceased most of their infighting, the Iroquois rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.
Tribes of North America who built extensive mounds of dirt, especially in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. They created distinctive earthen works that served as elaborate burial places
Nomadic and warlike, depended on buffalo and horse, hunted, fierce warriors, large tribes made up of smaller independent bands, rule by chief and elders, gender roles, communicated with other tribes through sign language
North America's first immigrant, who probably moved into the region from Asia thousands of years ago
The Five Civilized Tribes
the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, which were considered civilized by white settlers during that time period because they adopted many of the colonists' customs and had generally good relations with their neighbors.
Lived in the Southeastern United States before their relocation to other parts of the country, especially the future state of Oklahoma.
Trail of Tears
Refers to the forced relocation between 1836 to 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and North Carolina to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of approximately 4,000 Cherokees
Bacon's Rebellion of 1676
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans
Stamp Act of 1765
Primarily intended on paying for the military defense of the colonies. Parilament required that all revenue stamps be affixed to all colonial printed matter.
The Gilded Age
Refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era of the late 19th century (1865-1901). Is most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy. Characterized by robber barrons, panics, and political corruption.
Was a movement in western Europe and the Americas to end the slave trade and set slaves free. The slave system aroused little protest until the 18th century,
Is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). In other words, it asserts both of the following: Non-interventionism & Protectionism
Political rulers should avoid entangling alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense.
There should be legal barriers to control trade and cultural exchange with people in other states.
Is a social movement against the use of alcoholic beverages. Its movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence, or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation.
Was an American military officer, statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as the president of the Confederate States of America for its entire history, 1861 to 1865.
United States and Mexico War in 1846
Was sparked by the factor of a continuing dispute over the southern boundary of Texas.
Ronald Regan's Platform in 1980
Decreasing taxes and government regulation.
Dominant agricultural model in the post-Civil War South. Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50% of the crop).
The Sedition Act of 1918
Imposed harsh punishments for expressing ideas disloyal to the United States.
This group came to the United States between 1815 and 1860 because it was attracted to the availability of inexpensive land and higher wages.
Interstate Commerce Commision
Former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies. After his election in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt demonstrated support of progressive reforms by strengthening this.
Northern Securities Company
Was an important United States railroad trust formed in 1902 The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt; one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Requires the United States Federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies
The purpose of the act was to oppose the combination of entities that could potentially harm competition, such as monopolies or cartels.
INS- (Immigration and Naturalization Service)
Protected and enforced the laws of naturalization, the process by which a foreign-born person becomes a citizen. It also tackled illegal entrance into the United States, preventing receipt of benefits such as social security or unemployment by those ineligible to receive them, and investigated, detained, and deported those illegally living in the United States.
W. E. B. Du Bois
An American civil rights activist. He became the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, He was willing to form alliances with progressive White Americans in pursuit of civil rights.
Was co-founder and leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, an African-American organization established to promote Black Power, civil rights and self-defense.
Was an African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans
Taft Hartley Act (1947)
Passed over President Harry Truman's veto, the law contained a number of provisions to weaken labor unions, including the banning of closed shops. It imposed a federally mandated "cooling-off period" on strikes judged to endanger national security.
The New Deal
Was a series of economic programs passed by Congress during FDR first term
The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the 3 Rs: relief, recovery and reform. It attempted to improve the economy through large-scale spending on relief and reform.
Social reform movement of the nineteenth century driven by the belief that by establishing small communities based on common ownership of property, a less competitive and individualistic society could be developed.
Term describing decline of manufacturing in old industrial areas in the late twentieth century as companies shifted production to low wage centers in the South and West or in other countries.
The First Great Awakening
Was a period of heightened religious activity in the British North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
Term that entered the language in the 1820s to describe the increasing emphasis on the pursuit of personal advancement and private fulfillment free of oustide interference.
Indian Removal Act ( 1830 )
Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law premitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.
Originally, political philosophy that emphasized the protection of liberty by limiting power of government interference with the natural rights of citizens; in the twentieth century, belief in an activist government promoting greater social and economic equality.
Phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and the West and, more generally, as justification for American empire.
Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.
U.S. program for the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies.
Led the most important slave uprising in nineteenth-century America. The rebellion he led killed about sixty white people in Virginia in 1831.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Broad-based reform movement, 1900-1917, that sought governmental action in solving problems in many areas of American life, including education, public health, the economy, the environment, labor, transportation, and politics.
Late-eighteenth-century liberal offshoot of the New England Congregationalist Church; rejecting the Trinity, It professed the oneness of God and the goodness of rational man.
Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, child labor and more. Primarily in the 20th century, their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform.
Montgomery bus boycott
Sparked by Rosa Park's arrest on December 1, 1955, for refusing to surrender her seat to a while passenger, a successful year-long boycott protesting segragation on city buses; led by the Reverend Marin Luther King.
General U.S. strategy in the Cold War that called for containing Soviet expansion
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, the machine separated cotton seeds from cotton fiber, speeding cotton processing and making profitable the cultivation of the more hardy, led to the dramatic nineteenth century expansion of slavery in the South.
Britain was facing serious debt issues, and was in danger of a destabilized economy. These were a series of acts designed to tax the colonies, which included the Stamp Act (1765), Quartering Act (1765), currency act (1764), Declatory Act (1766), and Revenue act (1764).
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
The Federalist Papers
Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the argume
nts of the anti-federalists
The Dawes Act
Passed by Congress in 1887. Its purpose was to Americanize the Native Americans. The act broke up the reservations, gave some of the land to Native Americans. The government was to sell the remainder to white settlers and use the income from that sale for Native Americans to buy farm equipment. But by 1932 white settlers had taken 2/3 of reservation territory, and Native Americans received no money from the sale of the reservations.
The Seven Years War - French and Indian War (N.A. portion)
-War between British and French over North America
The American Civil War was fought during these years. It began with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House almost four years later.
The years of World War I which were triggered by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and ended with the Treaty of Versailles. US entered in 1917
Great Depression begins, stock market crash
1793, invented the cotton gin - separated the cotton from the seed. High British and N US demand during industrial revolution. Improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
1798 invented machine for making guns, interchangable parts, division of labor, mass production - spurred industrial revolution
Virginian, 1831 inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America, increased production.
1807, built first steamboat called "Clermont" - based on ideas of John Fitch. Replaced sails, sped up water travel.
Became a viable means of transporting goods.
Linked western waterways with Southern/Eastern Coast and helped unite the nation.
Postwar Period - A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
National government had no authority over its individual citizens, little control over state governments, Confederation Congress could make laws but no measures to carry out laws, no place for states to resolve differences, each state only had one vote in Congress no matter what size it was, held power for war and peace but no ability to collect taxes/get money, called by George Washington "a shadow without substance"
Major ideas in Declaration of Independence
-Written by Thomas Jefferson, ideals influenced by John Locke
-Rights of Citizens - all men created equal, unalienable rights life, liberty and pursuit of happiness, government should be based on consent of governed
-Freedom, reduce absolute unlimited power right to rise up against this suffering
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806, 1st federally funded scientific project to explore new land purchased in 1803. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Sherman's march to the sea
(1864-1865) Union General William Tecmseh Sherman's march from Chattanooga-Atlanta-Savannah. An early instance of "Total war", puposely targeting infrastucture and civialian property to diminish moral and undercut the confederate war effort. Burned all in his path
1861-1865, began at capture of Fort Sumter, ended with Lee's surrender at Appomattox, President of Union - Lincoln, President of Confederates, Robert E Lee
laws passed in 1767 by British Parliament that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. This was to raise money since they Stamp Act was repealed in March 1766. The money would be used to pay British colonial officials.
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
-Disagreed with slavery and secession, couldn't "raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home."
1944, Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island. the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US gvnt
In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a sensational campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954.
-McCarthyism became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.
a group of journalists nicknamed this by Teddy Roosevelt. progressive era journalists who make the public aware of the social problems within the American society.
-emerged after 1900 - WWI
The Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act of 1883 made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination. It was basically made to stop political corruption. The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders.
Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist, education and public libraries
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
aka Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament in March 1774, ex: closed Boston port until tea payments made, British accused of crimes tried in England, British troops must be quartered in any town/private homes, etc. made them want to fight back, including Washington
1764-65 these acts included the stamp, sugar, and currency acts. they were designed to control trade and raise revenue. there was great oppositoin to these acts in the colonies, and the enforcement of these acts began a chain of events that eventually led to the Revolutionary war.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britan, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
The League of Nations
Wilson wrote it. Located in Geneva, Switzerland, it was established in order to make sure war didn't break out again. The United States Senate did not approve Wilson's plan to join because they thought the terms were too harsh on Germany.
-Collective Security, weak and failed, didn't include the US and other major players, no power, no army, couldn't act quickly
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional Amendment 18
-Supported by Women's Christian Temperence, Anti-Saloon League
The Red Scare of 1919-1920
After the communists took over russia, the americas became kind of paranoid about communism, especially after the arrival and expoising of an american communist party. liberals were often scrutinized, to ensure the weren't communist.
1920, National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war
The Harlem Renaissance
A time during the 1920s when an extraordinarily talented group of African-American writers, artists, photographers and musicians lived, wrote, displayed, performed and published their work in Harlem, New York. Many of them had migrated from the Deep South. The artists and their work bore many similarities to Bourbon Street and the French Quarter in New Orleans.
This was passed in 1924 which cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants. The main purpose was to freeze America's existing racial composition which was largely Northern European. It also prevented Japanese immigration which led to fury in Japan.
National Origins Act
1924, Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely.
Consequences of Early contacts between Natives and Europeans
-Disease wiped out many Natives, Europeans learned how to grow crops such as tobacco, natives learned new weapons, horses
-Exchange of ideas/goods became known early on as Columbian Exchange
Hernan Cortes - Spanish
-1519-conquered Aztecs/Montezuma, looking for cities of gold
The Fugitive Slave Act
Was enacted in 1850. It increased the power of slave owners to recapture slaves. The Federal government backed rights to slave owners. It led to the Fugitive Slave Law
-Part of Missouri Compromise to keep peace
Dred Scott Case
1857, Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
The Underground Railroad
Began approx. 1817, A network of abolitionists that secretly helped slaves escape to freedom by setting up hiding places and routes to the North. Harriet Tubman is a key person to its success.
Waltham & Lowell
This plan was "Lowell Mill Girls" used for female textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts.
-Significant feature = young women from neighboring farms were hired to work in the textile mills to earn money until they married
-inventions such as the spinning jenny, spinning mule, and water frame in England around the time of the American Revolution made it one of the first mechanized industries
Consequence of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
It reopened the issue of slavery in the area closed to slavery north of the 36 30 line of the Missouri Compromise
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
The establishment clause
prohibits the government from either establishing a state religion or promoting one religion over the other
-Part of 1st ammendment
The free exercise clause
a famous clause in the constitution: the people of the country have the right to freely exercise any religion that they choose to; there is no national religion
When president vetoes a bill...
The bill is returned to Congress, and both houses must pass the bill by 2/3 majority for it to become a law
How the constitution is amended
-two methods are possible per the Constitution, but only one has ever been used
-Both houses of Congress propose and approve the amendment by a 2/3 vote, then the states ratify the amendment by approval of 3/4 of the states
-the other way is that 2/3 of the states can call a convention for the purpose of amending the constitution, then must be ratified by 3/4 of the states legislatures