Combo with Combo with General Science Praxis -- Life Sciences -- Diversity, Plants, Animals & Ecology and 4 others and 1 other
|5 Kingdoms|| Monera: bacteria|
Protista: unicellular organisms
Fungi: group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter
|Current debates about revising the 5-kingdom system center mainly on which groups of organisms?|| Monera have become:|
|Nomenclature scheme|| Kingdom|
|Phylogenetic relationships||Relationships in genes within a population.|
|Characteristics of viruses and bacteria||Viruses: acellular, mutate host to create new virus, contain either DNA or RNA (not both), smallest living thing|
Bacteria: unicellular, 2nd smallest living thing, circular chain of DNA with no membrane (prokaryotes), flagella, asexual reproduction, acquire food from organic matter (heterotrophic) or synthesize own food (autotrophic) using photosynthesis.
|Characteristics of protists||Unicellular or multicellular, free-living or parasitic, are true eukaryotes and are nucleated, 9+2 flagella, produce both sexually and asexually, acquire food from organic matter (heterotrophic) or synthesize own food (autotrophic) using photosynthesis.|
|Characteristics of fungi||Range from microscopic to macroscopic, absorb their food (heterotrophic) OR can break down organic matter to consume (saprophytic) OR parasitic, cell walls made of chitin, glycogen storage muscle, both sexual and asexual reproduction in form of spores, not motile, eukaryotes, rigid cell wall.|
|Vascular vs. avascular plants|| Vascular plants have tissues made of cells that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant (roots, stems and leaves).|
Avascular plants are called bryophytes.
|Bryophytes (plants)||(Mosses) Bryophytes are small, herbaceous plants that grow closely packed together in mats or cushions on rocks, soil, or as epiphytes on the trunks and leaves of forest trees.|
|Pterophytes|| (Ferns) Pterophytes are seedless, vascular plants.|
They thrive in tropical areas, but are also known to occasionally live in temperate climates.
|Gymnosperms||(Conifers) Evolved after ferns to live in climates with less water. Reproduce using seeds but do not flower.|
|Angiosperms||(Flowering Plants) Seeds are enclosed within a fruit of some sort.|
|Structure & function of roots, stems, and leaves||Root hairs provide huge surface area for absorption. Root tip is the area of cell division. Root cap protects and lubricates|
the growing root. Roots provide anchorage in the soil, allow absorption of and transport water and nutrients.
Stems support the leaves, flowers and fruit & transport water,
minerals and sugarsto leaves and roots.
Leaves are a plant's food factory. They are the main site
|Hormones, photoperiods, and tropisms||Hormones: chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another. Examples--auxin, cytokinins, etc.|
Photoperiods: a plant response to the relative lengths of light and darkness
Tropisms: plant's responses to touch, gravity, and sunlight. Examples: phototropism, gravitropism/geotropism, etc.
|Consider a seed planted upside down. When the seed germinates, why does the root grow downward into the soil while the shoot grows upward?||Gravitropism|
|Xylem and phloem|| Xylem: vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant.|
Phloem: tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed.
|Transpiration||The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants.|
|Alternation of generations||A process in which many algae switch back and forth between haploid and diploid stages of their life cycles.|
|Vegetative propagation||A form of asexual reproduction in which plants produce genetically identical offshoots (clones) of themselves, which then develop into independent plants.|
|Seedling germination, differentiation, and development||Seedling germination: water, light, temperature and other requirements must be met. Gene transcription and translation (gene expression) is resumed. Germinating seeds begin to rapidly respire. |
Differentiation: The process by which cells become specialized (take on specific functions). This process is reversible for most plant cells.
Seedling development: meristems --> roots --> stem (shoot) --> leaves
|Root and shoot meristems||Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.|
|What enzymes does the human body use to digest macromolecules?||Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acid.|
|Which type of nutrient has the highest caloric value per gram?|| Fats = 9k calories/gram|
Ethanol = 7k calories/gram
Proteins & carbohydrates = 4 calories/gram
|Circulation hormonal control mechanisms||(produced by the endocrine system ) growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, corticotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (thyroid hormones), corticosteroids and adrenaline (adrenal hormones), melatonin (pineal gland), sex hormones, insulin and glucagon (pancreas).|
|Respiration stages, function and control|| Stages: Ventilation, Pulmonary gas exchange, Gas transport, and Peripheral gas exchange.|
Primary function is to obtain oxygen for use by body's cells & eliminate carbon dioxide that cells produce.
Controlled by I & E neurons.
|Excretion function & hormones|| Eliminates metabolic waste and helps to maintain a salt, water, & nutrient balance in the body.|
Regulatory hormones: ADH, aldosterone,
|Nervous control||Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them.|
Sensorineurons, motorneurons, and interneurons (only in central nervous system).
Three basic functions are performed by nervous systems:
1. Receive sensory input from internal and external environments
2. Integrate the input
3. Respond to stimuli
Hormones: releasing hormones (GnRH, etc.), antidiuretic hormone, epinephrine, etc.
|Contractile systems||Two general classes of cardiac muscle cells involved in the normal heart beat:|
|Biologically important gases||Carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen|
|Macromolecules||Proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, nucleotides, fats/lipids, glycerol, fatty acids, carbohydrates (starch, cellulose, glycogen), monosaccharides (sugars)|
|Organelles||Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive|
|Golgi apparatus||A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell|
|Mitochondria||Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||An internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed|
|Chloroplasts||Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. (Making own food).|
|Plant vs. Animal Cells||Both: Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth and Rough), Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Microtubules/ Microfilaments, Flagella (sometimes), Nucleus, Plasma Membrane.|
Plants: Cell wall, Rectangular (fixed shape), One, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume, Centrioles in lower plant forms, Chloroplast.
Animals: One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells), Centrioles, Lysosomes.
|Fluid mosaic membrane model of the cell|
The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'.
The membrane is depicted as mosaic because like a mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of macromolecules, such as integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol, lipoproteins.
|Transport mechanisms of the cell||Diffusion, osmosis, passive transport, active transport, exocytosis, endocytosis.|
|Exocytosis||A process by which a cell releases large amounts of material.|
|Prokaryotic cells||Cells lacking a nucleus and most other organelles.|
The prokaryotic chromosome is a single DNA molecule that first replicates, then attaches each copy to a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull apart, the replicate and original chromosomes are separated. Following cell splitting (cytokinesis), there are then two cells of identical genetic composition (except for the rare chance of a spontaneous mutation). This is called binary fission.
|Eukaryotic cells||Larger, complex, with nucleus, membrane bound organelles, DNA tightly wrapped around histone proteins in chromosomes, cellulose in plant cell walls.|
During mitosis replicated chromosomes are positioned near the middle of the cytoplasm and then segregated so that each daughter cell receives a copy of the original DNA (if you start with 46 in the parent cell, you should end up with 46 chromosomes in each daughter cell). To do this cells utilize microtubules (referred to as the spindle apparatus) to "pull" chromosomes into each "cell".
|Cell Theory|| 1. All living things are made up of cells.|
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
3. New cells are only made from existing cells.
|Endosymbiotic Theory||A theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes.|
|Events of interphase||The thee main phases of interphase are G1, S and G2.|
During phase G1 the cell is undergoing rapid growth.
Organelle synthesis is happening, which also leads to protein synthesis as the cell requires structural proteins and enzymes.
In phase S there is synthesis of new DNA in the nucleus.
In the third phase, G2, more cell growth takes place and some of the organelles divide, pretty much like G1.
prophase: chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus.
metaphase: chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
anaphase: chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle.
telophase: a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes.
|Cytokinesis||Division of the cytoplasm during cell division.|
|What are the major differences between "normal" cells and cancerous cells?||Cancer cells are genetically unstable and prone to rearrangements, duplications, and deletions of their chromosomes that cause their progeny to display unusual traits.|
|In addition to killing many types of cancer cells, why does chemotherapy treatment cause side effects such as anemia, gastrointestinal distress, and hair loss?||Chemotherapy for cancer typically operates by targeting cells that divide rapidly. This affects cancer cells, but also affects certain cells within the body, including hair follicles, bone marrow, and the digestive tract.|
|Meiosis I||The first phase of meiosis where homologous chromosomes are separated, and the cells split in half.|
|Meiosis II||The second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.|
|Anabolic vs catabolic pathways in metabolism|| Anabolic: A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.|
Catabolic:A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
|Role of enzymes in metabolism||Some enzymes help to break down large nutrient molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, into smaller molecules. Other enzymes guide the smaller, broken-down molecules through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. Still other enzymes promote the formation of large, complex molecules from the small, simple ones to produce cellular constituents.|
|Photosynthesis equation|| 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2|
Carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
|Light reaction in photosynthesis||Pigments are molecules that absorb light. When a photon of light strikes a photosynthetic pigment, an electron in an atom contained within the molecule becomes excited. Energized electrons move further from the nucleus of the atom. Pigments are molecules that absorb light. When a photon of light strikes a photosynthetic pigment, an electron in an atom contained within the molecule becomes excited. Energized electrons move further from the nucleus of the atom.|
|Calvin cycle||The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), that makes sugar from carbon dioxide, H+ ions, and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH.|
|Aerobic cellular respiration equation|| C6H12C6 + 6O2-> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP, C6H1206 + 602 ----> 6CO2 + 6H20|
glucose + oxygen gas = carbon dioxide + water
|Glycosis||The first step in releasing the energy of glucose in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.|
|Kreb's cycle||The second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.|
|Electron transport chain||A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.|
|Oxidative Phosphorylation|| The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain. |
Part of the electron transport chain.
|Aerobic vs anaerobic reactions|| Aerobic Respiration: Oxygen is used to generate the small energy molecule - adenosine triphosphate (ATP).|
Anaerobic Respiration: ATP is synthesized using the electron transport chain, with inorganic molecules other than oxygen.
|What makes bread "rise" before it is baked?||Yeast makes bread dough rise because it is a live single-celled organism. Like many fungi types, yeasts for bread dough responds to warm water, which begins to bring the little cells to life. Then when exposed to sugars in bread and in flour, it begins to eat, digesting portions of these sugars. This rapid eating/digestion cycle makes it just a trifle gassy. As Saccharomyces cerivisiae is feasting, it begins to release gas bubbles of carbon dioxide, and small amounts of ethanol alcohol. These bubbles, trapped in the bread dough, cause the rising action with which we're familiar.|
|Antagonistic hormones|| hormones that have opposing physiological properties, but that work together. Ex. insulin & glucagon have opposite effects on blood sugar levels.|
Other hormone pairs:
Parathyroid & Calcitonin
Melanocyte & Melatonin
Oxytocin & Pitocin
|Structure of DNA nucleotides|| A,G,C,T bases (nucleotides)|
|Structure of RNA nucleotides|| A, G, C, U bases (nucleotides)|
|Watson and Crick's model for DNA structure||Double helix. Each strand of the DNA molecule was a template for the other. During cell division the two strands separate and on each strand a new "other half" is built, just like the one before. This way DNA can reproduce itself without changing its structure -- except for occasional errors, or mutations.|
|Base pairing||During cell division the two strands separate and on each strand a new "other half" is built, just like the one before.|
|Semiconservative replication||Chromosomes are the extended molecules of DNA that carry genes in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Bacterial chromosomes are usually circular, with the double helix looping around to make a complete circle. Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear, with the double helix sealing up at the two distant ends. In both cases, the result of replication is that one double helix with its two complementary strands of nucleotides becomes two identical double helices with the same sequence of nucleotides. In this way, the genetic material of a cell is passed along unchanged through all the descendants of the original cell (except for replication errors or other mutations).|
|Antiparallel replication||2 strands formed during DNA going in opposite directions like a one way street.|
|Transcription (genetics)||The organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA.|
|Translation (genetics)|| Translation is the second part of protein biosynthesis (the making of proteins). It is part of the process of gene expression.|
Before translation comes:
1. transcription produces a chain of introns and exons.
2. RNA splicing by spliceosomes which remove introns, and
3. formulate the messenger RNA from exons.
|Functions of ribosomes, mRNA codons, and tRNA anticodons in translation.||Ribosomes: In eukaryotes, translation happens on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm and in the endoplasmic reticulum.|
mRNA codons: Ribosomes are made of a small part and a large part which surround the mRNA (messenger RNA). In translation, mRNA has the base sequence to make a specific polypeptide. This sequence is originally specified by the DNA, and copied by the mRNA. The polypeptide can be a whole protein. Or, it can be just a part, waiting to be combined with other polypeptides so it can make a whole protein. The polypeptide also has to be folded before it works as a protein.
tRNA anticodons: Amino acids are carried by specific tRNAs with anticodons to connect with mRNA's matching codons. Each tRNA has its own anticodon and carries an amino acid. An anticodon is always together with the same amino acid. When the tRNA matches with the mRNA, the amino acid that is connected to the tRNA is unconnected from the tRNA and connected to the amino acid brought by the previous tRNA.
|Mutation and transposable elements...||generate genetic variability.|
|Monohybrid cross||Hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas).|
|Pedigree analysis||Chart showing one trait being carried over many generations.|
|Non-Mendelian inheritance subtopics||Complete dominance, epistatis (When one allele hides the affect of another allele), incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, polygenic inheritance, linkage and crossing over, sex-linkagae|
|What percentage of offspring will have blood type A if the parents have blood types AB and O? What percentage will have blood type O?||A & B dominate over O (more correctly, O is the lack of A or B). So, 50% A, 0% O. (The other 50% would be B).|
|Why are more males color-blind than females?||Remember that all males have an XY and females have XX, colorblindness is on the X chromosome, and since it is passed on by the X chromosome, this means that females have one good X and one colorblind X . Since colorblindness is recessive, this means the good X can provide the necessary pigments and the female is not colorblind unless she receive two X's that have colorblindness (one from her mother and one from her father), highly unlikely.|
On the other hand, since the Y has very few genes on it, the pigment missing in the X carrying colorblindness would not be replaced and thus colorblindness would occur in males with the X colorblindness gene from the mother.
|A small percentage of individuals with Down syndrome possess a chromosomal translocation in which a copy of the chromosome 21 becomes attached to chromosome 4. How does this translocation occur?||During the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) in a parent or very early in fetal development -- during meiosis.|
|Recombinant DNA||Genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms.|
|Restriction enzymes in gene splicing||Chemicals called restriction enzymes act as the scissors to cut the DNA. Thousands of varieties of restriction enzymes exist, each recognizing only a single nucleotide sequence. Once it finds that sequence in a strand of DNA, it attacks it and splits the base pairs apart, leaving single helix strands at the end of two double helixes. Scientists are then free to add any genetic sequences they wish into the broken chain and, afterwards, the chain is repaired (as a longer chain with the added DNA) with another enzyme called ligase.|
|Vectors in gene splicing||The genes to be inserted are cloned into a binary vector.|
|Scientific evidence supporting the theory of evolution||Biogeography, comparative anatomy and embryology, fossil record, molecular evidence.|
|Cuvier||Father of comparative anatomy and vertebrate paleontology; first to realize fossils were remains of extinct species; reasoned that there must have been a catastrophe that killed these creatures (catastrophism).|
|Lyell||Considered 'father of uniformitarianism' - belief that the earth was old, and catastrophism happened slowly.|
|Lamark||Use and disuse (parts that are used become bigger and stronger while other parts deteriorate) and inheritance of acquired characteristics (organism can pass on "modifications" to its offspring.|
|Gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium|| Gradualism: a model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity.|
Punctuated equilibrium: a theory of evolution holding that evolutionary change in the fossil record came in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow change.
|Introduction of variation and changes in a gene pool's allele frequency||Gene flow (immigration, emigration), random mutations, nonrandom mating, genetic drift.|
|Speciation||The formation of new species as a result of evolution.|
|Species||a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.|
|Pre- and post-zygotic barriers isolating gene pools|| Behavior isolation: species differ in the mating rituals.|
mechanical isolation: mating does not occur due to reproductive parts not fitting together.
reduced hybrid viability: Genes of the different parent species may interact and impair the hybrid's development.
|Geographical barriers isolating populations||Allopatric speciation: The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becoming isolated by a geographic barrier.|
sympatric speciation: The formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population. No geographic barrier is present.
adaptive radiation: the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches.
|Scientific theories of the origin of life on Earth|| Earth's age: 4.6 billion yrs.|
Abiotic synthesis: creation of life from non-living cells
Endosymbiotic theory: a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes
|Chemical periodicity||The variation in properties of elements with their positions in the periodic table|
|Periods in the periodic table|| Periods:|
Rows which run horizontally.
Labeled with a number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
These numbers indicate the total number of energy levels that any element in this period will have.
For example, K (potassium) which is found in period 4, has 4 energy levels when diagrammed.
|Ionization energy||The amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom.|
|How do the chemical characteristics of the elements in a period change as you move from left to right across the periodic table?||The physical and chemical properties of the elements in that period get increasingly opposite.|
|The properties of the elements are periodic functions...||of their atomic mass.|
|The mole||SI unit for the amount of substance present, 1 mole is 6.02 X 10 to the 23 particles (Avogadro's number), also the link between the number of atoms in a substance and its mass in grams (# of atoms/grams)|
|Stoichiometry||The relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers).|
|Gram atomic mass||Atomic mass of an element expressed in grams.|
|Chemical formulas|| Tells what elements make up a compound and the ratios of the atoms of those elements. |
The @ symbol indicates an atom or molecule trapped inside a cage but not chemically bound to it.
The formula (CH3)3CH implies a central carbon atom attached to one hydrogen atom and three CH3 groups.
|Systematic nomenclature||A system for naming inorganic binary compounds that uses the names of two elements/ions in a compound with prefixes to indicate how many atoms/ions are contributed to each molecule or formula unit|
|Stock and classical systems for indicating oxidation states on multivalent cations.||The stock system is used to name compounds of a metal cation (element with a positive oxidation number), not compounds of nonmetals.|
MnCl2 = manganese (II) chloride, metal compound, use Stock system
The classic system (using -ous and -ic) is based on the Latin name of the element. The lower oxidation state gets the -ous ending while the higher oxidation state gets the -ic ending.
|Polyatomic ions and associated acids|| -ic |
-ide no Subscript
-ate Subscript 3
-ite Subscript 1
|IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds according to their functional groups|| |
* The root word and 1osuffix together is known as base name.
* The Prefix(es), infix and 2o suffix may or may not be required always.
| a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds|
Alkanes have the general chemical formula CⁿH₂n+₂
Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
a carbon compound with a carbon-carbon triple bond.
| organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups (-OH)|
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
| Carboxylic Acids|
| ₃compounds with carboxyl groups (-COOH)|
an organic compound with one or more amino groups (-NH₃)
|Metallic bond||where metals put all their electrons in a pool and they can move around (makes metal be able to bend and conduct elecrticity really well)|
|Valence electron behavior||Valence electrons are important in determining how the atom reacts chemically with other atoms. Atoms with a complete (closed) shell of valence electrons (corresponding to an electron configuration s2p6) tend to be chemically inert. Atoms with one or two valence electrons more than a closed shell are highly reactive because the extra electrons are easily removed to form positive ions. Atoms with one or two valence electrons fewer than a closed shell are also highly reactive because of a tendency either to gain the missing electrons and form negative ions, or to share electrons and form covalent bonds.|
|Electron dot and structural formulas|
Structural formulas have particular value in the study of organic chemistry. They show the arrangement of the atoms within the molecules as far as which atoms are bonded to which and whether single, double or triple bonds are used.
The electron dot diagram shows how each atom has shared electrons to fill up its valence shell (or energy level).
|Drawing Electron dot diagram||Drawing the Electron-Dot Formula for Methane, CH4:|
The first thing that you must do is to determine the number of electrons available for the formula.
Hydrogen is in column IA and thus has 1 electron. Since there are 4 hydrogen atoms, the total for hydrogen will be 4 electrons.
Carbon is in column IVA and thus has 4 outer electrons...remember that we don't use the atomic number for electron-dot formulas.
The total number of electrons for all atoms is 8.
The next thing that you must do is to determine which atom will be in the center of the molecule.
The next thing that you must do is to draw a "C" and "H" and place 2 electrons between these atoms.
All you have to do now is draw all of the other hydrogen atoms around the carbon atom and place 2 electrons between these hydrogen atoms and the carbon atom. This gives you a total of 8 electrons
|Kinetic molecular theory||the theory that all matter is composed of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions|
|Relationship among phases of matter, forces between particles, and particle energy||...|
|Thomson atomic model||Plum pudding model|
|Bohr atomic model||solar system model|
|Quantum mechanical atomic model||based on mathematics; used today to explain observations made on complex atoms; cloud model|
| Atomic structure|
location & number of protons
|protons are located in the nucleus; the number of protons can be found on the periodic table (atomic number=big number in upper left-hand corner)|
| Atomic structure|
location and number of neutrons
|neutrons are located in the nucleus; the number of neutrons can be calculated as the mass number minus the atomic number (mass=number with decimal)|
| Atomic structure|
location and number of electrons
|electrons are located outside the nucleus, their exact location is difficult to pinpoint. Number of electrons is generally the same as protons. Atoms can gain or lose electrons becoming an ion (+/-).|
|Atomic number v. atomic mass|| atomic number=the number of protons also the identifying number of the element|
atomic mass=the mass of the protons plus the neutrons
|Define isotopes||an isotope occurs when the number of neutrons is more or less than the number of protons|
|Explain Rutherford's experiment||gold foil to explain the structure of atoms; downfall of plum pudding model; debunks theory that atoms are mostly space|
| Electron configuration:|
building up or construction; atoms are built up by progressly adding electrons to the most stable orbits (shells)
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f
| Electron configuration:|
correlation of e^- config to periodic table
|the first two columns plus He are the s-block; the middle are the d-block; the last six columns fill the p-block; the bottom rows fill the f-block; blocks designate the shell orders|
| Electron configuration:|
correlation of e^- config to chemical & physical properties
Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change. Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
| Electron configuration:|
energy of electrons in various configurations
the potential energy increases as the number of filled shells increases. This also accounts for "jumping" electrons from shell to shell
| Electron configuration:|
quantum numbers of electrons in various electron configurations
n=1,2,3,... (cannot be zero) principle number=size of orbital
l=any integer between 0 and n-1 angular quantum number=shape of orbital
m=any integer between -l and +l magnetic number=orientation in space of orbital
| Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with electrons:|
relationship between energy, frequency, and λ of electromagnetic radiation and electron transition
| > energy = > frequency = < λ|
| Interaction of electromagnetic radiation w/ electrons:|
Emission spectrum of H
|RsubH=Rydberg constant = 1.097X10^-2 nm^-1|
| Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with electrons:|
| electrons are emitted from matter (metals and non-metallic solids, liquids or gases) as a consequence of their absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength, such as visible or ultraviolet radiation|
Light behaves as both waves and particles
characteristics & effects of various types of alpha radioactivity
alpha=He nucleus is produced; slow-moving; extremely dangerous in human body but harmless outside the body
characteristics & effects of various types of beta radioactivity
beta=neutron changes to a proton; high-energy; ejected from nucleus; .9c; can penetrate human skin; negatively charged and have little mass
characteristics & effects of various types of gamma radioactivity
gamma similar to photons; very little mass and no charge; can penetrate centimeters of lead
|the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus|
|process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing a very large amount of energy, even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay|
|a reaction which produces an atom with a different atomic number. Thus a different element is produced. Radioactive decays are one type of natural nuclear transmutation|
|What is the relationship between the number of a period in the periodic table and the distribution of electrons in the atoms of elements in that period?||Electron shell #1 has the lowest energy and its s-orbital is the first to be filled. Shell #2 has four higher energy orbitals, the 2s-orbital being lower in energy than the three 2p-orbitals. (x, y & z). As we progress from lithium (atomic number=3) to neon (atomic number=10) across the second row or period of the table, all these atoms start with a filled 1s-orbital, and the 2s-orbital is occupied with an electron pair before the 2p-orbitals are filled. In the third period of the table, the atoms all have a neon-like core of 10 electrons, and shell #3 is occupied progressively with eight electrons, starting with the 3s-orbital. The highest occupied electron shell is called the valence shell, and the electrons occupying this shell are called valence electrons.|
| Binary compounds:|
stock (Roman numeral) and classical systems for indicating oxidation states on multivalent cations
|covalent bond||is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms|
|What are the special properties of water?||1. Water has high cohesion.|
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules make them stick together. But, you already knew that. The reason this is nifty is that it results in high surface tension, or the tendency for water molecules to stick together when at the boundary of a gas and a liquid (or a liquid and a solid, or even a liquid and a liquid...you get the idea), which means that it's actually pretty hard to break the surface of water compared to other liquids. Surface tension is what allows some things to float on water even if they're denser than water.
2. Water is a great solvent.
Water is dangerously good at dissolving things. Since water is a polar molecule, its positive end is attracted to negatively charged ions or the negative sides of other polar molecules, and its negative side is attracted to positively charged ions or the positive sides of other polar molecules. If you drop a salt crystal into water, the sodium ion (Na+) will quickly be surrounded by eager water molecules with the negative sides facing the positive sodium ion; the chlorine ion (Cl-) will be similarly surrounded by other water molecules with positive sides facing the negative chlorine ion. The important point is that the Na+ and Cl- get separated from each other, or dissolve in the water. Things that dissolve in water easily are hydrophilic ("water-loving"), and the "dissolvability" property is called solubility.
Have you ever tried to mix oil and water? No? Not much of a partier then, are you? It's a humbling experience because everyone fails. Oil is hydrophobic ("water-fearing") and immediately puts a stop to all of this dissolving business. Fats, including oil, are nonpolar molecules. All the component atoms in nonpolar molecules are sharing electrons equally among themselves. No squabbles there. The result, though, is that there is nothing for water to be attracted to, since water, the polar snob that she is, likes either ions or other polar molecules. The take-home point is this: if a substance is not polar or charged in any way, it usually won't dissolve in water (insoluble). You're out of luck, nonpolar molecules.
3. Water acts like a buffer.
To understand buffers, we need to know a thing or two about acids and bases. Acids are substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) into solution. HCl, or hydrochloric acid, is a compound formed by ionic bonds. When you drop it in water, the H+ and Cl- come apart, because as we said before, water is polar and will attack charged ions. Cue the paparazzi and/or vulture imagery. As a result, a whole bunch of H+ ions are released into solution, which dramatically increases the concentration of H+. An increase in the concentration of H+ causes an increase in acidity.
A base, on the other hand, is a substance that will bind to the free hydrogen ions (H+) that might be floating around in solution. NaOH is an example of a base. Bases are also known as alkaline. When you drop NaOH in water, the Na+ ions become separated from the hydroxide ions (OH-). Even though the oxygen and hydrogen of OH- are bound together covalently, they still count as an ion because, as a unit, they possess an extra electron, and therefore, have a net negative charge. Back to bases. You can probably guess what happens when a stray OH- ion encounters a free H+ ion: it's love at first sight, and the ions bind. What happens as a result? The concentration of free H+ ions in that solution decreases, which increases the basicity. Bases have more OH- ions than acids.
To summarize, acids release a bunch of H+ ions into solution, and bases mop them up like they're Swiffer. The last thing to mention before we come back to buffers is pH. The pH scale goes from 1 to 14 and is the way we measure how acidic a solution is, which has to do with how many hydrogen ions are in solution. Pure water has a pH of 7, which is neutral, and has exactly the same number of H+ ions as OH- ions floating around in solution.
Two things to remember:
1.If there are relatively more H+ ions, the pH goes down, increasing the acidity. More H+, more acidic, lower pH.
2.If there are fewer H+ ions, the pH increases, increasing the basicity. Less H+, more basic, higher pH.
Remember that the pH scale runs from 0 to 14, and each step represents a tenfold difference. In other words, a solution with a pH of 5 is 100 times more acidic than something with a pH of 7. And a solution with a pH of 3 is 10,000 times more acidic than something with a pH of 7. To put this in perspective, soda has a pH of 3. Kind of makes you want to rethink that Big Gulp Coke, doesn't it?
Water, as stated at the beginning of this section, can act like a buffer if there is a sudden change in pH. At any given moment, there are a few H2O molecules that break apart and form H+ and OH-. Don't worry...most of the water molecules are still completely bound together. There are a few hydrogen ions here and there who effectively get tired of "sharing" an electron with the pushy, selfish oxygen atoms. They throw their little atomic arms up and shout, "Fine! The electron is all yours. I'm outta here!" Therefore, there are a few stray H+ and corresponding OH- ions floating around in solution.
These few dissociated water molecules are what give water its buffering ability. If we add an acid to solution, some of the free OH- ions will bind to the newly added H+ ions, which will moderate the decrease in pH. Similarly, if we add a whole bunch of base to the solution, some of the added base will bind to the free H+ ions in solution, which will moderate the increase in pH.
Having said all of this, while water can be a buffer, it isn't a fantastic one since most of the H2O molecules remain completely stuck together. It has a little bit of buffering capability and is helpful with small changes in pH, but it is by no means the best and certainly can't compensate for super drastic changes in pH.
4. Water resists temperature changes.
First, water has a high specific heat capacity, which is the amount of energy that it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 °C. In other words, it takes a lot of energy to heat water.
Second, water has a high heat of vaporization (the amount of heat required to convert liquid water into gaseous water, aka steam). The high heat of vaporization of water is due to those pesky hydrogen bonds. Water molecules at the surface need to be moving really fast to break free into the air. Heating increases the movement of the molecules, but we already know it takes a lot of energy to heat water because water has a high specific heat.
If we put these two concepts together, we find that it takes a lot of energy to heat a water molecule, and we need to heat it a lot to give it the kinetic energy it needs to break the hydrogen bonds holding it to the rest of the water molecules. A double whammy if you're trying to get water to boil.
Lastly, water has a high heat of fusion, or the heat you need to take out of water to get it to solidify (freeze). What all this means is that water can hold a lot of heat energy before it changes temperatures and states (solid to liquid to gas). This property of water is great if you are an organism that lives in the water. Why, you might ask? A high heat of fusion means that, even if the temperature of the air changes a lot, water will shelter you from those changes and provide a pretty stable environment. Thanks, water.
5. Ice floats.
We know; you knew that. For most compounds, the solid is denser than the liquid, meaning that the solid will sink to the bottom of the container holding the liquid. Not for ice! The point is that water actually becomes less dense when it freezes, which allows the solid form, or ice, to float on the liquid form, or water. This is important for organisms that live underwater. If frozen water sunk, small bodies of water would be more likely to freeze completely in the winter, which would be bad for all the organisms living there. And by bad, we mean certain death. Instead, a layer of ice effectively insulates the underlying water, allowing many aquatic organisms to survive through the winter.
|Relationships among temp, pressure, volume, and number of molecules of an ideal gas||PV=nRT=NkT (P=pressure, V=volume, n=number of moles, R=universal gas constant [8.3145 J/mol K], T=absolute temp, N=# of molecules, k=Boltzman constant [1.38066 x 10-23 J/K = 8.617385 x 10-5 eV/K],|
|Characteristics of crystals||http://chemistry.about.com/cs/growingcrystals/a/aa011104a.htm|
|What effect does the rate of evaporation have on the size of salt crystals that form when water evaporates from a saltwater solution? (Also, what about the amt of dissolved salt, temperature or amount of space?)||Crystal growth is affected by four naturally occurring factors. It's important to understand what causes crystal growth in order to have an effective solution for preventing it. Here are the four basic reasons in order of significance: |
•If the water evaporates very slowly from the solution, over many weeks, relatively few crystals will get started, but these crystals will have time to grow larger before the water is gone.
•Conversely if water evaporates from the solution more quickly, more crystals get started, but they don't have time to grow as large.
Amount of dissolved salt
•The greater the amount of dissolved salt, the greater will be the effect on growth. Larger crystals will normally result from more salt being available.
•The greater the drop in cooling the greater the effect on the size of the crystal. Thus, the greater the drop in temperature, the larger will be the resulting crystals.
Amount of space
•Crystal size is also determined by the amount of space available for growth. When crystals run out of space and run into one another, they join.
|How to balance chemical reactions||Balancing chemical equations isn't difficult, once you know the way to do it. Start by finding out how many atoms of each type are on each side of the equation. Some teachers recommend making a little table listing the numbers of each atom for the left hand side and for the right hand side.|
Next, look for an element which is in only one chemical on the left and in only one on the right of the equation. (But it is usually a good idea to leave hydrogen and oxygen until you've done the others first.)
To balance that element, multiply the chemical species on the side which doesn't have enough atoms of that type by the number required to bring it up to the same as the other side. The number is called the coefficient.
If you have to multiply by, say, 2 1/2, do so, THEN multiply EVERYTHING on each side of the equation by two to get rid of the half.
We don't like having halves in equations, as you can't get half a molecule.
Now look for the next element or species that is not balanced and do the same thing.
Repeat until you are forced to balance the hydrogen and oxygens.
If there is a complex ion, sometimes called a polyatomic ion, on each side of the equation that has remained intact, then that can often be balanced first, as it is acts as a single species. The ions NO3- and CO32- are examples of a complex ion.
A VERY useful rule is to leave balancing oxygen and hydrogen to the last steps as these elements are often in more than one chemical on each side , and it is not always easy to know where to start. Some people also say you should leave any atom or species with a valancy of one one until the end, and also generally leave anything present as an element to the end.
In Example 1
Unbalanced Equation:- C3H8 + O2 ---> H2O + CO2
There are three carbons on the left, but only one on the right.
There are eight hydrogens on the left but only two on the right.
There are two oxygens on the left but three on the right.
Balanced Equation:- C3H8 + 5O2 ---> 4H2O + 3CO2
, you would balance the carbons first, by putting a 3 in front of the CO2, then balance the hydrogens by putting a 4 in front of H2O and finally the oxygens (which are in more than one compound on the right, so we leave them until last) by putting a 5 in front of the O2.
Unbalanced equation:- H2SO4 + Fe ---> Fe2(SO4)3 + H2
Balance the SO4 first (as it is a complex ion and it is in one chemcial species on each side)
3H2SO4 + Fe ---> Fe2(SO4)3 + H2
Now balance the Fe (which is also in one chemical on each side)
3H2SO4 + 2Fe ---> Fe2(SO4)3 + H2
Finally, balance the hydrogen (although it is in one chemical species on each side, it is usually a good idea to leave it until last)
Balanced Equation:- 3H2SO4 + 2Fe ---> Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2
We alter the coeficients in the equation.
Do NOT touch the subscripts for the atoms in a chemical species, or you will change it into an different chemical. That would be a bit like saying I want six chicken legs for a meal, so I'll go get a six-legged chicken. As chickens have two legs, you will need three normal, two-legged, chickens, not a six-legged mutant monster, probably from outer space.
If you start by trying to balance something which is in more than one species on one side, you can't easily tell which species you should have more of, and so can end up going round in circles, continually altering things. If this happens, just start again, but balancing atoms or complex ions that are in one species on each side. (This is important or it will not work.)
|Define: single replacement chemical reaction||a reaction in which an element reacts with a compound and replaces another element in the compound. A general equation that describes a single-replacement reaction is A + BC --> AB + C, where A and C are elements and BC and AB are compounds. The reaction in which copper displaces silver from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate is an example of a single-replacement reaction.|
Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) ---> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
|Define: double replacement chemical reaction (precipitation and neutralization)||a reaction in which there is an exchange of positive ions between two compounds. These reactions generally take place between two ionic compounds in aqueous solution. A general equation that describes a double-replacement reaction is AB + CD --> AD + CB, where A and C are cations and B and D are anions. For a double-replacement reaction to occur, at least one of the products must be a gas or water, or a precipitate. |
Precipitation reactions are one type of double-replacement reaction. An example is
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) ---> AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
This is what is called a molecular equation, which is a chemical equation in which the compounds are written as if they were molecular substances,even if they exist in solution as ions. Another type chemical equation is an ionic equation. The ionic equation shows soluble ionic compounds as individual ions in solution. Lets rewrite the equation above.
Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ---> AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
Next we cancel any ions that appear on both sides of the equation.
Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ---> AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
Remove the cancelled ions (called spectator ions) from the equation and we have
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ---> AgCl(s)
This is called a net ionic equation.
A neutralization reaction is a reaction that occurs between an acid and a base with the formation of an ionic compound and water, if the reaction is in an aqueous solution. This is another type of double-replacement reaction. An example is
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ---> H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
The net ionic equation would be
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ---> H2O(l)
|Define: combustion chemical reactions||a reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen, usually with the rapid release of heat and the production of a flame. Organic compounds usually burn in the oxygen in air to produce carbon dioxide and if the compound contains hydrogen, another product will be water. For example butane burns in air as follows.|
2 C4H10(g) + 13 O2(g) ---> 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(l)
|Define: combination chemical reactions||a reaction in which two substances combine to form a third. A general equation that describes a combination reaction is A + B --> AB. Again A and B can be either elements or compounds. Decomposition and combination reactions can be considered to be the reverse of each other. Under some conditions it is possible to change conditions and cause a decomposition reaction to become a combination reaction or vice versa. The reaction of calcium oxide with sulfur dioxide to form calcium sulfite is an example of a combination reaction. |
CaO(s) + SO2(g) ---> CaSO3(s)
|Define: decomposition chemical reactions||a reaction in which a single compound decomposes to two or more other substances. A general equation that describes a decomposition reaction is AB --> A + B where A and B can be elements or compounds. Most compounds can be broken down into simpler substances or decomposed. Often this can be done by heating the compound. For example the industrial preparation of lime (calcium oxide) involves the decomposition of calcium carbonate by heating it. |
CaCO3(s) ---> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
|Effect of temperature on chemical reaction rate||Usually, an increase in temperature is accompanied by an increase in the reaction rate. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of a system, so higher temperature implies higher average kinetic energy of molecules and more collisions per unit time. Once the temperature reaches a certain point, some of the chemical species may be altered (e.g., denaturing of proteins) and the chemical reaction will slow or stop.|
|Effect of pressure on chemical reaction rate||Increasing the pressure on a reaction involving reacting gases increases the rate of reaction. Changing the pressure on a reaction which involves only solids or liquids has no effect on the rate.|
|Effect of concentration on chemical reaction rate||For many reactions involving liquids or gases, increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of reaction. In a few cases, increasing the concentration of one of the reactants may have little noticeable effect of the rate.|
|Effect of presence of catalysts on chemical reaction rate||A higher concentration of reactants leads to more effective collisions per unit time, which leads to an increasing reaction rate (except for zero order reactions). Similarly, a higher concentation of products tends to be associated with a lower reaction rate. Use the partial pressure of reactants in a gaseous state as a measure of their concentration.|
|In general terms, what will happen to a chemical equilibrium if the temperature, pressure, or concentration of one of the reactants is changed?||If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature, volume, or partial pressure, then the equilibrium shifts to counteract the imposed change and a new equilibrium is established.|
Temperature: When the reaction is exothermic (ΔH is negative, puts energy out), we include heat as a product, and, when the reaction is endothermic (ΔH is positive, takes energy in), we include it as a reactant
Pressure: Changes in pressure are attributable to changes in volume. The equilibrium concentrations of the products and reactants do not directly depend on the pressure subjected to the system. However, a change in pressure due to a change in volume of the system will shift the equilibrium. An increase in system pressure due to decreasing volume causes the reaction to shift to the side with the fewer moles of gas. A decrease in pressure due to increasing volume causes the reaction to shift to the side with more moles of gas. There is no effect on a reaction where the number of moles of gas is the same on each side of the chemical equation.
Concentration: Changing the concentration of an ingredient will shift the equilibrium to the side that would reduce that change in concentration
|Examples of oxidation-reduction processes||Oxidation-reduction reactions have many far-reaching applications in our lives. Some of these applications are so common, that we take them for granted; others are not so obvious. The following are just a few examples of oxidation-reduction reactions.|
The Dry Cell Battery
Photo-oxidation (Photogray Æ Glasses)
|Examples of voltaic cells||batteries and capacitors|
|Examples of electroplating||applying metallic coating onto a part (chrome, nickel, gold, silver, etc.)|
|In electroplating, which electrode is amde of the object to be plated? Of what substance is teh other electrode composed?||The electroplating process is facilitated by applying a negative charge onto the part object and immersing it into a salt solution of the metal to be deposited. The metallic ions of the salt solutions are charged positive by applying a positive charge to the solution and are drawn to the negatively charged part. When they reach the part, the negatively charge part will "reduce" the positively charged ions onto the metallic part.|
|define: solute||the substance that is dissolved in a solution|
|define: solvent||a substance in which another substance is dissolved|
|define: saturated||Containing the largest possible amount of a particular solute (single bonds)|
|define: unsaturated||having a double or triple bond and capable of taking on elements or groups by direct chemical combination without the liberation of other elements or compounds|
|define: superunsaturated||A solution which has reached saturation at a higher temperature is supersaturated. Solution containing more solute that the slovent would oringinally dissolve, usually done by heating up the solution.|
|define: electrolytes||A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.|
|define: nonelectrolytes||a substance that does not readily ionize when dissolved or melted and is a poor conductor of electricity|
| What type of solvent would be needed to dissolve--|
| fat: cyclohexane|
fingernail polish:nonpolar solvent such as acetone
sugar and salt: both polar so water would work
|describe the dissolving process||1. The bonds holding the solute particles together must be broken. This bond-breaking step requires energy.|
2. The solvent surrounds the solute particles forming bonds (intermolecular or ionic) between the solute and solvent particles. This process is sometimes called solvation, or if the solvent is water, it is called hydration. Since this is a bond-forming step, this process releases energy.
3. Finally, the cluster of solute and solvent particles are distributed evenly throughout the mixture. This process requires energy.
|factors affecting rate of dissolution||http://www.chemistrylecturenotes.com/html/factors_affecting_dissolution.html|
|Why is ammonia gas very soluble in water while O⁵ is only slightly soluble?||The water has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. The oxygen is more electro negative than hydrogen and hence the electrons are pulled towards the most electro negative element oxygen. This makes the oxygen to have partial negative charge and the hydrogen with partial positive charge. The same thing happens in the case of ammonia formation. The most electro negative element is nitrogen in ammonia compared to hydrogen. So the shared electrons are pulled towards the nitrogen and hence it possesses partial negative charge. The hydrogen possesses partial positive charge. This similar type of distribution of electrons in water and ammonia determines their polar nature.|
|The effects of temperature and pressure on the solubility of a solute||The solubility of gas in water depends also on the temperature and pressure of the gas. Gases dissolve in water at high pressures and low temperatures.|
|Physical and chemical properties of acids||PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS |
It has a sour taste.
It turns blue litmus to red.
It turns methyl orange to red.
Acids are electrolyte.
Strong acids destroy fabric.
Strong acids cause burn on skin.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
An acid when reacts with a base, salt & water are produced. This reaction is called neutralization
HCl + NaOH è NaCl + H2O
HNO3 + NaOH è NaNO3 + H2O
HCl + KOH è KCl + H2O
REACTION WITH CARBONATES
Acid and carbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide
MgCO3 + 2HCl è MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HCl è CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
Na2CO3 + H2SO4 è Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 + H2SO4 è CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
REACTION WITH BICARBONATES
Acid and bicarbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide
NaHCO3 + HCl è NaCl + CO2 + H2O
REACTION WITH METAL
Zn + 2HCl è ZnCl2 + H2
2Al + 6HCl è 2AlCl3 + 3H2
Reaction with iron oxide:
6HCl + Fe2O3 è 2FeCl3 + 3H2O
|Physical and chemical properties of bases||PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BASE |
They have a bitter taste.
They have slippery touch.
They conduct electrically.
It turns red litmus to blue.
It turns colorless phenolphthalein to pink
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BASE
REACTION WITH ACIDS:
BASE + ACID è SALT + WATER
KOH + HCl è KCl + H2O
NaOH + HCl è NaCl + H2O
REACTION WITH SALTS
FeCl3 + 3NaOH è Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl
2CrCl3 + 6NaOH è 2Cr(OH)3 + 6NaCl
MgCl2 + 2NaOH è Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl
REACTION WITH METALS
2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O è 2NaAlO2 + 3H2
Zn + NaOH + H2O è Na2ZnO2 + 2H2
Si + 2NaOH + H2O è Na2SiO3 + 2H2
|Physical and chemical properties of salts|| Properties most salts have:|
-soluble in water
-salt solutions are highly conductive
-salts have a high melting point
Some salts are liquid at room temperature (these are called ionic liquids), but most salts are solids.
|The effect of buffers||Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications. Many life forms thrive only in a relatively small pH range so they utilize a buffer solution to maintain a constant pH.|
|Terminal Velocity||The velocity at which a falling body moves through a medium, as air, when the force of resistance of the medium is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity.|
|Newton's Laws of Motion|| 1. In motion stays in motion unless acted upon|
2. F = ma
3. Action = reaction
|Inertia||The resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest.|
|Archimedes' principle||An object is immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.|
|Bernoulli's Principle||As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases|
|Why does a dime flip over when air is blown across the top of the dime?||According to Bernoulli's principle, when air is blown with an increased velocity over the dime, the air pressure beneath the dime decreases significantly and causes lift.|
|Why are metals good conductors?|| A metal is a good conductor because it has got free electrons in its outermost Shel which can be transferred from one atom to another.|
Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_metal_a_good_conductor#ixzz1syoVJPD7
|Electromotive force||The rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit.|
|Potential difference||The difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.|
|Parallel Circuit|| I = I₁ = I₂|
R = R₁+R₂+...
|Series Circuit|| |
|Sources of EMF||Batteries, photocells, generators|
|Generator Vs. Motor||Generators are devices that turn mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors are devices that turn electrical energy into mechanical energy. Though they perform opposite functions, there are actually few differences between motors and generators.|
|Why does the sky appear blue?||Much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue. This is called Rayleigh Scattering.|
|Why do polarized sunglasses reduce glare?||Glare includes vibrations of light waves in different direction, while passing through polarized glasses, only light waves vibrating in one particular direction is allowed to pass through whereas, light waves vibrating in all other direction are cut off, thus polarized glasses are capable of reducing glares while the ordinary glasses fails to do so.|
|When you blow over a bottle what happens to the frequency as you fill the bottle with water?||Less water, higher pitch. The sensation of a frequency is commonly referred to as the pitch of a sound. A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency sound wave and a low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency sound wave.|
|Plane (flat) mirrors||The image seen in a plane mirror seems to be behind the mirror. This is an example of a virtual image It is also right-side up, but reversed from right to left.|
|Concave mirrors||The light hitting the surface of concave mirror converges, and the image made by the mirror is either virtual or real, depending on the position of the object that is reflected. If the object is between the mirror and the focus, it will be right side up, virtual, and larger, while objects farther than the focus will be real images that subject to the position once again, may appear upside-down, larger, or smaller.|
|Convex mirrors||When parallel light rays pass through a convex mirror, the reflected light appears to have come from behind, hence making it a virtual image. This explains why the passenger side mirrors of cars, which are convex mirrors, display objects that look smaller than they are: the brain considers the diverging rays to have come from an image behind the mirror itself.|
|Fiber Optics||You hear about fiber-optic cables whenever people talk about the telephone system, the cable TV system or the Internet. Fiber-optic lines are strands of optically pure glass as thin as a human hair that carry digital information over long distances. They are also used in medical imaging and mechanical engineering inspection. These tiny strands of glass transmit light.|
Mechanics - motion in a straight line
|the space between point A and point B|
Mechanics - motion in a straight line
| distance traveled per unit time|
r = d / t
Mechanics - motion in a straight line
define: average speed
|v = d / t|
Mechanics - motion in a straight line
|a = change v / change t|
| How would you prepare 1.0L of a 300mM NaCl solution?|
Also, if you were going to use this solution to bathe live cells, would it be important to include a buffer in your solution?
|The molecular weight of NaCl is 58.44 g/mole|
So, a 1M solution would be 58.44 grams of NaCl per liter of water:
58.44 g x (mole/58.44 g)/1 liter = 1 mole/liter = 1 M
Since there are 58.44 g of NaCl per mole, then 0.3 moles of NaCl would be 58.44 g x 0.3 = 17.53 g
So, a 0.3 M solution of NaCl would be 17.53 g of NaCl per liter of water (or 17.53 mg NaCl in 1 ml or 0.01753 g NaCl in 1 ml).
As for the question about the buffer, you can just use the NaCl solution as long as the water is distilled and has pH 7 (the NaCl won't change the pH). Remember to sterilize the salt solution before adding it to the cells.
|Examples of physical properties||Color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density. There are many more examples. Note that measuring each of these properties will not alter the basic nature of the substance.|
|Examples of chemical properties||Heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force.|
|Oxidation Reactions|| Oxidation is the process of losing electrons. The metal atoms release electrons (are oxidized) and become positive ions.|
The site at which this occurs is known as the anode.
Typical oxidation half-reactions include the following.
(1) Zn ----> Zn2+ + 2e-
(2) Al ----> Al3+ + 3e-
(3) Fe ----> Fe2+ + 2e-
|Elemental abundance|| The relative stability of various atomic isotopes has exerted a strong influence on the relative abundance of elements formed in the Big Bang, and during the development of the universe thereafter.|
Nuclear fusion processes in stars creates more elements.
|Change in form vs. change in composition||The solid ice and liquid water have the same composition. The only difference is the form.|
|Separation versus decomposition of matter|| Matter is separated into three states: solid, liquid, gas|
Decomposition: Separation into constituents by chemical reaction
|Specific Heat Capacity|
|The First Law of Thermodynamics||Conservation.|
|The Second Law of Thermodynamics||(entropy) The energy available after a chemical reaction is less than that at the beginning of a reaction; energy conversions are not 100% efficient.|
|Cathode rays||Streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.|
|Alpha-Scattering Experiment|| |
Alpha particles from a radioactive source were allowed to strike a thin gold foil. Alpha particles produce a tiny, but visible flash of light when they strike a fluorescent screen. Surprisingly, alpha particles were found at large deflection angles and some were even found to be back-scattered.
|Atomic Spectra||Transitions between the same energy levels always produce the same color photon.|
|Describe two major shortcomings of the Bohr model of the atom?|| 1. Can't work for any atoms except single electron atoms and ions.|
2. Can't explain chemical bonds.
|Relationship between conservation of matter and atomic theory.||Atomic theory is the field of physics that describes the characteristics and properties of atoms that make up matter. The key point to note about atomic theory is the relationship between the macroscopic world (us) and the microscopic world of atoms. For example, the macroscopic world deals with concepts such as temperature and pressure to describe matter. The microscopic world of atomic theory deals with the kinetic motion of atoms to explain macroscopic quantities.|
|Loss of electrons in bonds||The ionization energy is the amount of energy that it takes to remove an electron from an atom. The ionization energies are lowest for the elements down and on the left hand side of the periodic table and increase as you go up and all the way across to the right.|
The ionization energy measures how hard it is to lose or remove an electron. High ionization energy means that it is hard to lose electrons. Low ionization energy means that it easy to lose electrons. The elements on the left side lose their electrons fairly easily and the elements on the right side of the periodic table do not lose their electrons very easily. Taking vertical position on the table into account, the elements that are lower on the table lose electrons more easily and the elements that are higher have a harder time losing electrons. Thus the overall trend is from most easily losing electrons on the lower left to least easily losing electrons on the upper right.
|Gain of electrons in bonds||The ability to gain electrons is also related to the position on the periodic table. You should recall that as you go from left to right on the periodic table, the attraction for electrons increases and the ability to gain electrons increases. This is true all the way across the periodic table except for the inert gases. There is an abrupt drop in the ability to gain electrons when we get to the inert gases. This is because their energy level is full and any additional electrons will have to start a new energy level.|
|Atomic size|| Think of an electron as an object pulling the shell in (smaller).|
The more electrons = more objects pulling the shell smaller.
|Helium smaller than Hydrogen|| Along a period (left to right) the the atomic number increases while the valence electrons remain in the same shell. Thus due to the increasing nuclear charge (pulling electrons closer to the nucleus) the radii of the atoms decrease left to right.|
And as you can see from the table, Hydrogen and Helium are in the same period.
|Beta Plus Decay|
|Beta Minus Decay|
|Why is lead found in all deposits of uranium ores?||Radioactive uranium decays in a series of steps. Lead is the stable element at the end. So even if the ore originally contained no lead, the radioactive uranium isotopes in the ore will decay and become lead over time. Granted it takes a long time to do that, but it will eventually become lead. That's why uranium ores contain lead. It's the left over after the radioactive uranium isotopes have completed their decay.|
| Historical figures & Landmark events|
|Pioneering research in radioactivity.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Inheritance of traits.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Theory of evolution by natural selection|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Described universal gravitation and three laws of motion.|
|Physics: Newton's three laws of motion||I: Every object continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by external forces acted upon it.|
II. The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma.
III. When two bodies interact by exerting force on each other, these action and reaction forces are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction.
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Improvement of the telescope; support for Copernicanism (earth around sun); "father of observation astronomy" "father of modern physics" "father of science".|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Help established the basis of modern geology; uniformitarianism.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Created the periodic table inserting holes where an element had not yet been discovered.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Developed theory of general relativity; photoelectric effect; quantum theory.|
| Historical figures & landmark events |
|Pioneering research in the development of atomic theory.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Double helix; 4-6 paired chromosomes.|
| Historical figures & landmark events|
|Often described as "seeing with atoms", is a technology used to create global images of otherwise invisible phenomena in the magnetospheres of planets and at the boundary of the heliosphere - the far-flung outer edge of the solar system.|
|Minerals|| A naturally occurring inorganic solid which possess a crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition. Close to 4000 have been identified to date; however, only a few dozen are abundant. |
Examples are: gold, copper, talc, quartz, halite, gypsum
|Rock forming minerals||Make up most of the rocks of Earth's crust. These are broke up into different groups or classes: |
Silicates-the most common group of rock forming minerals. They all have a building block of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)4-, it is an ion with a charge of -4. The oxygen atoms can be isolated (low silicon content) or shared to form chains or other 3-dimensional frameworks (high silicon content). Examples are: quartz, feldspar, hornblende, olivine, Augite, and the micas of biotite and muscovite.
Carbonates-examples are calcite which is found in limestone and dolomite which is found in dolostone.
Oxides-example is magnetite
Sulfides-example is bornite (ore of copper)
Halides-example is fluorite
Native elements-example is diamond
|Properties to identify minerals||cleavage, hardness, crystal form, luster, color, streak, specific gravity, feel, magnetism, and reaction to acids|
|Cleavage||The tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding. Minerals with no cleavage are said to fracture.|
|Hardness||The resistance a mineral has to scratching.|
|Mohs Hardness Scale|| Used to rate a minerals hardness on a scale of 1 to 10|
6 Potassium Feldspar
.....Glass or knife blade is 5.5
.....Copper penny is 3.5
.....Fingernail is 2.5
|Crystal form||The external appearance of a mineral as determined by its internal arrangement of atoms.|
|Luster||The appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral. Can be described as metallic (shiny), sub-metallic (dull), non-metalic (vitreous, like glass), earthy (like dirt or powder), pearly, and resinous|
|Color/Streak||Color is an obvious mineral characteristic that is often unreliable as a diagnostic property. Streak is the true color of the mineral in powdered form, it can be determined by rubbing the specimen across an unglazed porcelain tile.|
|Rock||An aggregate of one or more minerals.|
|Rock cycle||A model that illustrates the origin of the three basic rock types (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) and how different geological processes transform one type into another.|
|Igneous rocks||A rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma. Magma rises to the surface because it is less dense than rocks. If the magma solidifies at depth then it is called intrusive and if the magma solidifies at or near the surface then it is called extrusive, such as basalt. The texture of igneous rocks helps to identify where the rock was formed. |
If the rock has small crystals then it cooled rapidly at or near the surface. The fine grains of the individual minerals can't be seen and these rocks are called aphanitic. Cooling very rapidly can produce a glassy texture or thread-like pumice texture.
If the rock has larger crystals then it cooled slowly at depth. The coarse grains of the individual minerals are able to be seen and these rocks are called phaneritic, such as granite.
Some igneous rocks are called porphyritic and contain large crystals (phenocrysts) in small crystals (groundmass) which means it started to cool slowly then moved to an area where it cooled rapidly. The groundmass can be apharitic or phaneritic.
|Sedimentary rocks||Rock formed from the weathered products of preexisting rocks that have been transported, deposited, and lithified. |
Rocks can weather mechanically or chemically.
When rocks are weathered mechanically, they are broke down into smaller pieces. This increases the surface area and speeds up the weathering process.
Erosional agents (water, ice, and wind) remove the solid products (detritus) of weathering and transport them to other locations where the sediment is deposited. Rocks that are formed from detritus are called detrital sedimentary rocks, such as clay and quartz. Particle size is used to distinguish between detrital sedimentary rocks: clay, silt, and sand (1/16th to 2mm) ...then anything larger than sand is called gravel: granule, pebble (4 to 64mm), cobble, and boulder. When these predominate together it is called conglomerate (rounded stones which have been transported a far distance) or breccia (angular stones which have not been transported very far).
Lithification can happen from the process of compaction or cementation.
Chemical weathering alters the chemical structure of the minerals by removing or adding elements. This happens when material is dissolved in water. When this precipitates by evaporation, temperature change, or chemical activity then it can become rocks such as limestone, chert, or rock salt. The most abundant product of chemical weathering is clay minerals which is the major component for shale.
|Metamorphic rocks||Rock formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within Earth (but still in the solid state) by heat, pressure, and or chemically active fluids (hot water containing ions). Heat is the most important factor because it provides energy to drive chemical reactions. Contact metamorphism happens when rocks near the surface are subjected to intense heat from intruding magma. |
These rocks can from from igneous (granite to gneiss), sedimentary (shale to slate), or metamorphic (slate to mica schist) rocks.The degree of metamorphism is reflected in the rocks texture and mineral composition.
Rocks under pressure become more dense. Under extreme pressure and temperatures, some minerals recrystalize to form larger crystals or the crystals of some minerals will recrystalize with a preferred orientation that is perpendicular to the direction of stress. This gives the rock a layered or banded look called foliation. However, not all are foliated. Sometimes new minerals are formed during metamorphism.
|Other terms to define?||Erosion, deposition, porosity, permeability, runoff, infiltration, mechanical weathering, chemical weathering, layers of earth, characteristics of earthquakes, earthquake wave and how to find the epicenter, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, groundwater terms,|