Looking Out Looking In - chapter 3

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Looking Out Looking In - 13th edition CHAPTER 3 - quiz preparation

perception

brains processing of incoming sensory information that the brain then interprets as perception [NOT FROM BOOK]

perception process

there is more to the world than anyone is capable of understanding - ability to organize our perceptions, a process to help us attach meaning to experiences by selection, organization, interpretation, negotiation

SELECTION - perception process

we select which impressions we will attend to - important first step since we are exposed to more input than we can manage - some determining factors that help w/selection is intense stimuli, repetition, contrast/change in stimuli, motives [selection also involves ignoring other cues]

intense stimuli [selection - perception process]

intense stimuli often attracts our attention - things that are louder, brighter, larger stands out and gets noticed

repetitious stimuli [selection - perception process]

repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat - example of how repetitious stimuli gets noticed - even the repetative dripping of a faucet can come to dominate our thoughts and become noticeable after a while [because it is repeating]

contrast/change [selection - perception process]

on a paper you are writing, you create contrast, or call attention to some words by making them bold, uppercase or at least italic - this would be contrast/change in stimuli

motives [selection - perception process]

also gets noticed, and determines what info. we select - if anxious about being late for a date, you are likely to notice every clock, red lights, traffic, etc. - things you wouldn't otherwise have seen if you weren't late

ORGANIZATION - perception process

along w/selecting info from our environment, we also must arrange it in some meaningful way [to organize it] - pictures that are illusions [figure/ground organization], are good examples of this [p. 84 vase] - what you see depends on how you organize the information - we also use methods to organize people, such as perceptual schema - by which further organize according to appearance, social roles, interaction style, psychological traits, memberships

perceptual schema [organization - perception process]

way we organize other people [communicators] by using a number of perceptual schemas

appearance [organization - perception process]

classify people according to their appearance such as male/female, beautiful/ugly, heavy/thin, young/old, etc.

social roles [organization - perception process]

also classify people according to social roles such as student, attorney, wife, husband, etc.

interaction style [organization - perception process]

another way classify people by interaction style such as friendly, helpful, aloof, sarcastic, and many more

psychological traits [organization - perception process]

other cases we classify by psychological traits such as curious, nervous, insecure, etc.

membership [organization - perception process]

we can use others memberships and classify people per groups such as Democrat, Christian, immigrant, etc.

stereotyping [organization - perception process]

exaggerated generalizations associated w/a categorizing system - when generalizations loose touch w/reality they lead to stereotyping - doesn't always arise from bad intentions, as some cases are careless generatizations

punctuation [organization - perception process]

its a determination of causes & effects in a series of interactions - such as a running quarrel w/husband wife where both have differing perceptions of what came first [chicken or egg]

INTERPRETATION - perception process

after selection and organized, we interpret our perceptions in a way that makes sense - interpretation plays a role in virtually every interpersonal act -

INTERPRETATION - factors that cause one to view events differently

degree of involvement w/the other person, personal experience, assumptions about human behavior, attitudes, expectations, knowledge, self-concept, relational satisfaction

degree of involvement w/other person - INTERPRETATION factor

sometimes view more favorably those we have a relationship with

personal experience - INTERPRETATION factor

what meaning has similar events held to influence your interpretation of current event?

assumptions about human behavior - INTERPRETATION factor

assumptions such as "people generally do as little work as possible just to get by" OR "in spite of their mistakes, people are doing the best they can" - such beliefs will shape way we interpret anothers actions/words

attitudes - INTERPRETATION factor

the attitudes we hold shape way we make sense of another's behavior - such as a homophobic would jump to conclusions if heard a man say "I love you" to another man, where if less homophobic would think more platonic thoughts

expectations - INTERPRETATION factor

anticipation shapes interpretations - our expectations influence our perceptions such as if told [or read reviews] before hand that a teacher is an "easy A" you would definitely be influenced by this and would perceive the teacher as easy [perhaps by mistake be slacker until first flunked quiz wakes you up]

knowledge - INTERPRETATION factor

prior knowledge of a friends mishap [fired from job, or dumped by her lover] you would interpret her behavior accordingly allowing her to be rude, snappy, etc. and not taking her attitude personally [vs. how you would if you had no such knowledge]

self-concept - INTERPRETATION factor

feeling insecure makes world a different place - self concept has proven to be single greatest factor in determining whether people on receiving end of being teased respond w/comfort or in defense [or other opposing emotions] - how we feel about ourself strongly influences how we interpret others behavior

relational satisfaction - INTERPRETATION factor

when behavior of partner that is usually normal or positive is viewed negatively when you are unhappy [same behavior viewed different] - also if unhappy, are more likely to believe their partners intentions are selfish and negate

NEGOTIATION - perception process

process by which communicators exchange stories [narratives] by which they negotiate for shared perception - such as you and a friend watch a speaker, afterwards you both seem to recall events in different manner so you negotiate back n forth until there is a shared understanding - but when narratives clash, it can remain unresolved - but its best to [at the very least] negotiate conflicting narratives to some kind of common ground

narratives - NEGOTIATION

are the stories that communicators negotiate - often narratives differ, but the ideal outcome is to both be competent comm. to be able to negotiate your narratives and see others point of view for shared understanding

PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

what are the influences that cause us to select, organize, interpret, and negotiate information? - PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES [such as the senses, age, health & fatigue, hunger, biological cycles, psychological challenges], CULTURAL DIFFERENCES, SOCIAL ROLES [such as gender roles, occupational roles, relational roles]

the senses - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

difference in how each of us sees, hears, tastes, touches, smells stimuli affects interpersonal relationships [comm.] - such like a person who lives in stifling cold climate would think 55 degrees is warm vs. one who lives near the equator who would think 55 degrees is way too cold [actual physiological perceptions]

age - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

older generation view world far different from younger, simply because they have had more experiences and have a greater scope - but to ensure this scope continues to broaden, older must also view new perspectives as new cultures of younger generations come forth [as it would be wise for younger to try to view the elder generations point of view]

health & fatigue - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

having the flu or cold can interfere w/perception - feel less sociable, and slower response time - being overly tired can affect your perception and make you less aware or more sensitive, interferring w/perception

hunger - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

either hunger or excessively stuffed can interfere w/perception [could be construed as physiological noise] - many people get grumpy when hungry just like many get tired when they stuff a huge turkey dinner down - all affecting perception

biological cycles - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

being a morning or night person puts many on different cycles of alertness, tolerance to stress, sexual drives differ, moods are different, all which affect perception

psychological challenges - PHYSIOLOGICAL influences on perception

some perception issues stem from neurology - such as having ADD/ADHD can become easily distracted - those w/bipolar have dramatic mood swings - all which affect perception

CULTURAL DIFFERENCE influences on perception

another kind of perceptual gap that blocks comm., the gap between people w/different backgrounds - comm. w/those from other cultures is much better if you understand each others culture importances [less likely to take things personal] - there is even differing cultures w/in cultures to consider - anyone who refuses to see the other point of view is caught up in ethnocentrism

ethnocentrism - CULTURAL DIFFERENCE

is the attitude that one's own culture is superior to others - they think aloud or quietly that anyone who does not belong to his/her group is strange, wrong, or inferior - one must overcome this to deal w/perception between different cultures

SOCIAL ROLES influences on perception

different social roles that influence perception are gender roles, occupational roles, and relational roles

gender roles - SOCIAL ROLES

remember, sex = biological differences like female or male - gender = the social and psychological dimensions of masculine/feminine behavior - gender roles are socially approved ways men/women are expected to behave - 8 psychological sex types perceive interpersonal relations diff.[p. 99], among them is androgynous

androgynous - GENDER ROLES

refers to masculine and feminine traits

occupational roles - SOCIAL ROLES

type of work we do influences differing views of the world - w/in same occupation can be differing perceptions such as a classroom where teacher who knows the material in her sleep needs to remember when she teaches it that to the students it is foreign and strange

relational roles - SOCIAL ROLES

[think back to self-concept list you made] such as mother, daughter, sister, auntie, God parent, etc. these roles define who you are and affect perception - such as when relationship ends you no longer see that person in same favorable light and therefore have different perception

common tendencies in perception

tendencies we have regarding perception by which comes from attaching meaning to behavior, of which tendencies leads to attribution errors

attribution - common tendencies in perception

word used to describe the process of attaching meaning to behavior - attribution errors that come from common tendencies

we judge ourself more charitably than others - COMMON TENDENCIES IN PERCEPTION

attempt to convince ourselves & others that the positive face we show to world is true, we tend to judge oursleves in most generous terms which is called self-serving bias

self-serving bias - judge ourself more charitably than others

tendency to judge self in most generous terms possible

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