Physical Science III

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The agents of metamorphism are?

heat, pressure, and chemically-active fluids

A fiord is a

drowned glacial trough

What mineral is the hardest know substance in nature?

Diamond

What is known as a strong parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.

Foliation

The water table is

A boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above.

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break smooth, parallel planes is known as

cleavage

Which one of the following is not true of glaciers?

exist only in Northern Hemisphere

Sedimentary rocks

may contain of fossils, hold important clues to Earths History may be economically important. (all of the above)

Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following enviroments except

a salt flat

Obsidian exhibits a ------- texture?

glassy

The igneous texture is characterized by 2 distinctively different crystal sizes?

porphyritic

The most unreliable diagnostic property of mineral such as quartz is

color

Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends it terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

Accumulation exceeds wastage

A _______ is an erosinal feature produced only by alpine glaciation.

U-shaped Valley

The controlling force of mass wasting?

gravity

The most common drainage pattern is

dendritic

Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of glacier?

the basal, sliding zone

Describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

Capacity

The term "glacial drift" means

any sediments of glacial orgin

At a bend in a river, the main erosion is

on the outside of the bend

A ________stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes where the land surface is tectonically doming upward.

radial

The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as

hardness

A ____ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.

Stalacite

Which of the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus?

protons

When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in a water table. Such a depression is

cone of depression

Drumlins are __________.

not found singly, but in clusters

Which one is not true for minerals?

They can be a liquid, solid, or glass.

Permeable rock strats or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called _____.

aquifers

Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called

ions

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, a rock lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?

Selectron

Which of the rocks listed below is possible building stone?

granite

Igneous rock is formed

by crystalization of molten rock

a ______represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in a glacial ice that ice that was filled with sand and gravel.

Esker

________make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains

Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?

Calving

Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

Calcite

As the rate of cooling increases, the size of crystals that form______.

Decreases

Which one of the following is not related to chemical weathering?

Frost Wedging

Desert pavement is the result of _______.

Deflation

The former, late Palozoic super continent is known as

Pangea

The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of ___________.

granite

_______magma is the most abundant type erupted at oceanic spreading centers.

Basaltic

______are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism.

Water and Carbon dioxide

The ____ is a direct measure of the distance from a seismic receiving station to the focus of a distant earthquake.

Time interval between the first P and S- wave arrivals

On a typical seismogram, _____will show the highest amplitudes.

surface waves

The instrument which records earthquake events is termed a _______.

Seismograph

Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

Shield volcanoes fed by a long lived hot spot below the Pacific Lithospheric plate

_______ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.

High Viscosity and dissolved gas

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.

The ______ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision?

northward movement of India to Eurasia.

What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas?

Correlation

The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by

design of structures, intensity and duration of the vibrations, nature of the surface materials, all of these.

Which of the following is not considered pyroclastic debris?

pahoehoe

Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid ocean ridges are configured as ______.

normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge.

Today, ____ is in about the same geographic position as during Palezoic Time.

Australia

Pull apart, rift zones are generally associated with ____.

a divergent plate boundary.

The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the longest time span is called a(n)

era

The continental drift hypotheses was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegner could not

identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

Cooler, Older Oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at ____.

Subduction zones along the convergent plate boundaries.

Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in the area?

The feldspar and quartz contents of a granite

Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive?

Eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes.

The surface manifestation of a mantle plum is called a____.

hotspot

Energy is stored adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ___.

elastic strain

Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from ____.

seismic waves

A ____ is the largest, discordant body of intrusive, igneous rock.

batholith

An unconformity is a buried ____.

surface of erosion separating young strata from older strata below

Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?

Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on top of older rock or sediment layers

Which region has the greatest concentration of currently active volcanoes?

the circum-Pacific Area

Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are _____.

young, active, stratovolcanoes built on a contiental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere

When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron _____.

combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent

The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of ____.

iron

Which of the following best characterizes an angular uncomformity?

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Which one of the following statements are incorrect?

S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids.

A _____ is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.

sill

What is the age of the EArth accepted by most scientist today?

4.5 billion years

_______ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases.

Water

By applying the law of superposition ______dates can be determined.

relative

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because

worms have no hard parts

The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is related to _____.

related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism

Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________.

protons in the nucleus

Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?

the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons

Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen?

quartz

Chemical weathering would be most effective ________.

in a warm, humid climate

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of ________.

particle size

. ________ is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.

Foliation

The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called ________.

transpiration

The transfer of rock material down slope under the influence of gravity is termed ________.

mass wasting

A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where
the land surface is tectonically doming upward

radial

Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called ________.

aquifers

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels

Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?

Antarctica

Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus
downslope) over a period of many years?

Wastage exceeds accumulation.

Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?

the basal, sliding zone

Desert pavement is the result of ________.

deflation

Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area?

30%

. Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.

convergent (subducting)

In the early part of the 20th century, ________ argued forcefully for continental drift.

Alfred Wegener

Today, ________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time.

Australia

Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with ________.

a divergent plate boundary

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.

The ________ is a direct measure of the distance from a seismic receiving station to the
focus of a distant earthquake.

time interval between the first P and S- wave arrivals

The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly
measure the extent of building damage.

Richter

What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?

aftershocks

Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.

elastic strain

_______ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano

High viscosity and dissolved gas

Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?

pahoehoe

Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive?

Eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes.

A ________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic
lava flows.

shield

A ________ is the largest, discordant body of intrusive, igneous rock.

batholith

_______ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of
uniformitarianism.

James Hutton

Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?

Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on top of older rock or sediment layers.

What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and
match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas?

strata indexing

Which of the following denotes the divisions of the geologic time scale in correct order
of decreasing lengths of time beginning with the longest time interval and ending with the
shortest?

eon, era, period, epoch

. Geologically, ________ are actually submerged parts of the continents.

continental shelves

Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and rise are believed to have been
created ________.

none of these:
by rivers during the ice age
by faulting
. because of a plate plunging into the mantle

Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches?

They are geologically very stable.

Seamounts ________.

are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor

Seafloor spreading occurs along relatively narrow areas at the crests of oceanic ridges
called ________.

rift zones

Fetch refers to ________.

a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves

How are spits, hooks, and baymouth bars formed?

Sand is deposited from longshore currents

______ are the maximum-amplitude tides produced when the Sun, Earth, and Moon
are aligned.

Spring tides

________ are currents that move sand and water parallel to the beach.

Longshore

Which one of the following is an artificial coastal feature?

breakwater

Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40 percent. This means that__

40 percent of the Sun's energy is reflected.

During the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis

remains constant at 23.5 degrees.

Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?

Days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world

The Earth receives energy from the Sun by

radiation.

Which two gases make up a combined total of 99% of clean, dry air in the homosphere?

nitrogen and oxygen

As the temperature of air is reduced to its dew point, which of these is most likely to
occur?

condensation

The change in the free air temperature as you go up into the atmosphere is called____.

environmental lapse rate

The most common way for air to be cooled in order that a cloud may form is by____.

rising and expanding.

Relative humidity indicates the _____.

nearness to saturation for the air

A convergence of winds near the surface is associated with cloud production because it ______.

forces the air to rise

the pressure gradient force is directed from higher to lower pressure _____.

everywhere

What is the average sea level pressure in the United States?

1013 mb

what do isobars represent on a map?

lines connecting points of equal air pressure

The Coriolis effect occurs because of this characteristic of the Earth:

its rotation

the effect of friction on the wind alters its ____.

speed and direction

An air mass from the Gulf of Mexico is labeled ________.

mT

Which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses?

both warm front and cold front

Which of the following should have the steepest pressure gradient?

tornado

Typhoon is another name for a ________.

hurricane

Hurricanes generally are ________.

all of these:
larger than tornadoes
smaller than mid-latitude cyclones
areas of heavy rainfall and strong winds

A cluster of three, large, fresh looking, impact craters shown in radar images of the surface of
Venus best supports the conclusion that ________.

erosion and weathering are very slow processes on Venus

The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and
dispersed solid particles.

nebular hypothesis

As the solar system was forming, ________ came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and
becoming a second sun.

Earth

Which one of the following statements is believed to be true of comets?

They have highly elliptical orbits around the Sun.

_______ meteorites are thought to be analogous in composition to Earth's core

Iron

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