When is speech and voice science clinically useful?
When combined with an understanding of client needs along with finding evidence-based therapy techniques.
What five disciplines are studied in speech science?
Aerodynamics, Acoustics, Kinematics, Dynamics, Psychoacoustics.
Generation of airflow from body structure movements/displacement (respiratory system/larynx) creating air pressure, which causes the disturbance of air (sound - phonemes).
Smallest meaningful unit of sound
Air movements and the forces that generate air movement.
The physical study of sound production, transmission and effects.
Study of motion: position, velocity and acceleration.
Forces that cause movement.
Interdisciplinary field of psychology and acoustics. Studies the relationship between physical sound properties (acoustics) and our perception of them (psychology).
Activities regulated by neurological systems and the physical properties of the structures governed by those systems.
Are voice and speech neuromechanical?
What is voice?
Production of sound waves by vocal fold (VF) vibration.
What is speech?
Production of phonemes by vocal fold (VF) vibration and using formants and articulators in the vocal tract (particularly in the oral cavity).
What is the difference between voice and sound?
Voice is the production of SOUND, speech is the production of PHONEMES.
Speech is movement made...
What causes motion?
Push or pull on an object.
Are forces visible?
No. We don't see forces, only their effects on the object.
Can forces be identified? How?
Yes, through their effects on objects.
Can we measure forces?
What is the unit of measurement for force?
What is a Newton?
A force that accelerates 1 kg m/s^2
The relationship between distance and time. Speed is the magnitude of velocity.
The speed of talking, measured in syllables per minute.
Speed with information about movement direction.
What am I referring to when referring to 60 miles per hour?
Is speech rate referring to speed or velocity?
Is lip movement for phoneme production measured in speed or velocity?
Unchanging speed (steady pace) in a single direction.
Increase in velocity as a function of time.
Decrease in velocity as a function of time.
How do Newton's laws explain motion?
They describe how objects behave when influenced by an outside force, which can produce changes in the object's activity.
Which Newton law states, "A moving object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest unless acted upon by an outside force"?
First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)
Can an object accelerate if it has no outside force acting upon it?
A force acting upon an object, resulting in movement. Synonym: net force.
An object's tendency to resist change in their state of motion.
Which Newton Law states, "The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to its net force, and it is inversely proportional to its mass. The object will accelerate in the direction of the net force."?
Newton's Second Law of Motion.
What is the formula for Newton's Second Law of Motion?
F = ma (F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration)
If a net force is due right, in what direction will an object accelerate?
If you throw a ball, the ball will accelerate in the same direction of your hand movement, according to what Newton law?
Newton's Second Law of Motion.
What Newton Law states, "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."
Newton's Third Law of Motion.
Does Newton's Third Law of Motion refer to cause and effect?
When referring to "action" and "reaction", what does Newton mean?
Forces acting upon objects.
Newton's Third Law of Motion (in other words).
Objects exert a reactive force (reaction) on an initial force (action).
If you run into someone, you exert an initial force on someone but glide back in reaction to exerting that force on them, in accordance to what Newton Law?
Newton's Third Law of Motion.
Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. It has both a magnitude and direction
What tendency needs to be overcome to achieve momentum?
If you decrease mass, what will happen to momentum?
If you increase velocity, what will happen to momentum?
How is momentum measured?
It has no specific unit of measured, just mass times velocity (usually kg m/s).
The ability to do work.
Force exerted over a distance.
What is the formula for work?
W=fd (W=work, F=force, d=distance)
Work is proportional to...
force and distance (displacement)
Why is distance key to work?
Because energy expended does not mean that distance was traveled or work was performed.
If you clench your teeth, has work been performed?
If you produce /t/ and your tongue and jaw move downward, has work been performed?
Does there need to be motion for work to be performed?
What is the unit of measurement for work?
What is Joule?
Unit of measurement for work, refers to Newtons times meters
Does speech production always mean energy transfer?
What is the tragectory of the energy in speech production.
The air in the lungs goes to the vocal folds, the vibration displaces the air into the vocal tract and articulators, it radiates aerodynamic energy and then reaches the recipient.
Management of what is critical to treating voice?
Energy in the lungs and vocal tract.
The rate at which work is expended.
What is the formula for power?
P=W/t (P=power, W=work, t=time)
What is the unit of measurement for power?
What is a watt?
The unit of measurement for power, represents Joules per second.
What is kinetic energy?
The most obvious form of energy: motion. Governed by the mass and speed of an object.
There is a close relationship between kinetic energy and...
What happens to the kinetic energy of an object if the mass increases?
How much kinetic energy is an object capable of expending?
Energy waiting to be released in the future.
Kinetic energy + Potential Energy = Total Energy
Can the amount of total energy be changed (if friction is ignored)?
Can the amounts of potential energy and kinetic energy change?
Yes, as long as they add up to the same total energy.
What are the three stages of matter?
Solid, Liquid and Gas.
What are the stages of matter related to?
How molecules are arranged within a material.
Holds its shape and volume and is rigid enough to counteract outside forces imposed on it.
Higher kinetic energy than solids. Can maintain a solid volume but it assumes the shape of its container because the molecules do not remain in place.
Within a liquid, molecules are attracted to one another, pulling each other in different directions (up, down and to each side). However, the molecules in the surface do not have molecules pushing them up, only pulling them down and to the sides, which causes cohesion between the molecules at the surface, and a higher resistance to outside forces than the rest of the liquid. (Example: alveolar sacs in lungs)
Retains neither shape nor volume when put in a container because it will expand to fill its size. It has a high kinetic energy and is the least dense material state.
Aerodynamics of the vocal tract study...
fluid in motion.
A state of matter that can freely change their shape, either a liquid or a gas.
How closely molecules are packed in a volume. It is comprised of mass of a material and atom arrangement.
What is the unit of measurement of density?
Usually measured in g cm^3 of kg cm^3
What is looked at when determining how materials' shape changes when acted upon by a force.
Elasticity and Stiffness.
The ability of an object to spring back to a resting shape after removal of deforming forces.
The ability of an object to resist deformation.
A change in length of a material is proportional to the force applied to it.
The harder you pull on something, the more it will stretch, according to which law?
What do we know about a rubber band's elasticity and stiffness.
It has low stiffness and high elasticity.
If an object does not resist deformation, it has a ____ stiffness.
If an object stays deformed after removing a force it has a ______ elasticity.
Force exerted by collision of fluid molecules against the walls of a container, and the resulting opposite forces from the container wall.
What are the two types of pressure?
Outward and inward.
Why is pressure important to speech?
Speech production is created by the manipulation of air pressure and airflow.
What is a pascal?
A measurement of air pressure representing N/m^2
What is a microbar and what is it used for?
A measurement of pressure representing 1 dyne/cm^2. Used in hearing science.
What are lung pressure and vocal tract pressure typically measured in?
cm of H2O
What device is used to measure lung pressure?
What are the two ways vocal tract pressure can be measured in?
kilopascals and cm of H2O
What is the conversion of kilopascals to cm of H20
1 kilopascal = 10 cm of H2O
What does a barometer measure?
Mercury displacement to determine weather pressure.
A back and forth motion. Synonym: oscillation
An object will maintain a rest position, when not disturbed by an outside force (following Newton's first law of motion)
Force that causes an object to move from its position of equilibrium.
Force that causes an object to restore its prior, undistorted position.
A vibrator (VFs in the case of voice/speech) creates a disturbance transported in a medium (air). The particles in the air interact with one another and carry the energy through the air. The result is an omnidirectional wave carrying sound energy.
Requires a medium to transport energy from one point to another (cannot occur in a vacuum).
Simplest wave. A single disturbance travels through a medium.
Sound pressure waves where particles move PARALLEL to wave's direction.
Traveling sound wave
Alternating compressions and rarefactions of air molecules.
Collision of air molecules result in sections of increased density and higher air pressure.
Decreased density, lower pressure regions result from momentum and a restorative forms which separate molecules.
Sound waves are mechanisms of...
Can energy be carried by the sound wave?
Particle motion is PERPENDICULAR to wave motion. Instead of compressions and rarefactions, there are crests and troughs.
High point of a wave.
Low point of a wave.
Graphic representation of a phenomena as a function of time (i.e. sound vibration as a function of time)
Simple harmonic motion
Oscillation continues unchanged upward and downward through each cycle of vibration. Synonym: Uniform circular motion.
What kind of wave represents a uniform circular motion?
Sine wave (sinusodial wave)
What are the four properties of a sound wave?
Frequency, Phase, Period, Intensity.
What is frequency?
The rate of which particles vibrate back and forth each second in a sound wave. Measured in Hertz.
What is Hertz?
Unit of measurement for frequency that represents cycles per second.
What is a wave cycle?
A complete repetition of a pattern of the wave: One unit of alternating compression and rarefaction.
What is a phase?
The point at which the waveform begins in a cycle.
What is the system of measurement used internationally?
What is the difference between the MKS system of measurement and teh CGS?
MKS is newer (distance in meters, volume in liters, mass in kilograms, time in seconds). CGS is older - smaller units (centimeter, gram, second).
1 centimeter =
1/100th of a meter.
A bit less than 1/2 an inch.
Is mandibular motion an example of speed or velocity?
Quantities with magnitude and direction (muscle activity)
Your jaw moves when releasing /p/. Is it accelerating or decelerating?
Reaction to a state of inertia.
Is acceleration inversely or directly proportional to mass?
For a constant force, acceleration will increase if...
What type of energy can be described as unused energy?
Pressure is distributed equally if...
the container is completely closed.
Pressure in the oral cavity is particularly important in the formation of what kind of phonemes?
Work in environmental, musical and human sounds (after sound exits the vocal tract)
Speech-Language Pathologists are interested in...
the generation (at the source) and shaping (filter) of sound within the vocal tract.
How should someone receiving voice therapy breathe? Why?
Through the mouth to achieve thoracic expansion.
What is the relationship between pressure and volume, according to Boyle's law?
In an enclosed space, as volume increases, pressure decreases as long as temperature remains constant.
decrease in speed/slow down (a pendulum stops because of damping caused by friction)
The loss of energy due to mechanical resistance to force.
A disturbance being composed of vibrations that move within a medium
Medium that transports sound energy.
What is the result of vibrating tines of a tuning fork?
Compressions and rarefactions of air molecules.
What carries energy in a wave?
The particles or wave itself.
Sound pressure waves' disturbance itself travels...
Sound pressure waves' particles oscillate but don't travel beyond...
their own area of disturbance.
Is a pulse wave a single wave?
The time it takes for one cycle of vibration to occur.
A wave in which every cycle takes the same amount of time to occur.
A periodic wave
A wave in which the individual cycles do not take the same amount of time to occur.
Do we hear frequency and intensity?
What is the relationship between period and frequency?
Period (t) is measured in...
If frequency is lower, what happens to the period?
It is longer.
If frequency is higher, what happens to the period?
It is shorter.
Sound wave is generated, travels a certain distance, and then hits a boundary.
Depending on boundary properties, what may incident waves do when hitting a boundary?
They may be transmitted, absorbed or reflected.
Sound carried through the boundary.
The damping of a wave, with diminishing changes in air pressure (due to friction).
The amount of sound that is not transmitted or absorbed, bounces back from the surface of the boundary, traveling in the opposite direction of the incident wave.
Waves combine, reinforce each other, and increase resultant amplitude.
Waves combine and decrease the resultant amplitude.
The combining of waves.
In phase interference
Two waves combine at exactly the same time, doubling the resulting wave.
Relative timing of areas of high and low pressure in waves (to other waves).
What type of interference is in phase?
What type of interference leads to cancellation of compressions and rarefactions?
Constructive interference results in...
Stronger waves, increased amplitude.
Destructive interference results...
Waves with weaker intensity.
Two waves of equal amplitude that are 180 degrees out of phase with each other will cancel each other out. This is called...
Most interference is not completely constructive nor completely destructive, but mixed.
When interference occurs between two waves of different frequencies that are not harmonically related, the phase relationship...
constantly shifts across cycles.
Moderately out of phase
Two waves of equal frequency are superimposed, compressions and rarefactions do not completely line up. The compressions close to each other yield small increases in intensity.
The effect on the intensity in complex interference is dependent upon...
the degree to which the two waves are in or out of phase.
When interference occurs between two waves of different frequencies that are harmonically related, the phase relationship...
Constant pattern of constructive interference.
If two waves begin at the same point but do not remain in phase, it is because they...
have different frequencies.
If two waves are harmonically related but have different frequencies, the phase relationship will
remain stable throughout the wave
Are speech waves considered simple or complex?
Complex sound waves
Consist of two or more frequencies, can be periodic or aperiodic.
Periodic complex sounds
Series of frequencies systematically related to each other.
The lowest frequency of the sound
The frequencies above the fundamental frequencies and multiples of them are called...
Systematically related harmonics means...
lining up harmonics.
A pendulum and a tuning fork are examples of
simple harmonic motion
Objects vibrating at a single frequency in a simple harmonic motion.
If a complex wave is composed of two sine waves of different frequencies but both have the same amplitude, what happens to the fundamental frequency?
The fundamental frequency of the complex wave is equal to the f(0) of the lowest frequency component.
Composed of waves of different amplitudes.
Periodic complex waves
Repetition of pattern, equaling space and constant space.
Sounds found in nature, non synthetic.
A bell, piano and horn are examples of what type of wave?
Periodic complex wave.
What is the plural word for spectrum?
A line spectrum where time is not specifically identified (x=frequency). A snapshot of the energy of each frequency component of a pressure wave.
A plot of the change in amplitude of the pressure wave over time.
Complex aperiodic wave
Successive cycles do not have equal spacing and consistent shape. The waves are not related by multiples of F(0) because they lack a perceived single frequency.
MOost natural sounds are
Are complex aperiodic waves always unpleasant sounds?
An obstruction/interference between two mediums.
What are teh four possible boundary behaviors?
Reflection, diffraction, transmission, refraction.
Wave bounces off a boundary, traveling in the opposite direction.
Wave bends around boundary.
Wave goes through boundary.
Wave changes in velocity.
If the two mediums of a boundary are very similar, what happens to the reflection and transmission?
Less reflection, greater transmission.
Intensity refers to...
Power (energy per second) measured over area (squared cm or m).
How is intensity measured?
Watts per square area (ex: w/cm^3)
What happens to the energy imparted on molecules as displacement increases?
The amplitude of the sound pressure wave is...
If you want something to be twice as loud, what do you do to distance?
Cut it in half.
There is an inverse square relationship between intensity and...
amplitude of the sound pressure wave.
If distance is doubled, intensity is...
decreased by half.
Small increases in sound pressure yield what degree of increases in intensity?
Large increases in intensity
Speech intensity is measured as...
the relative power of one sound to another in dB SPL (sound pressure level).
What is a decibel?
Measure of intensity, 1/10th of a bel. A manageable measuring system for a wide range of human hearing.
What is the magnitude of displacement by force?
Sound pressure level (SPL)
Difference between the pressure of interest and the standard reference pressure expressed as a logarithm.
What is the formula for comparing the relative intensity of two sounds?
dB SPL = 20 [log(10) P(0)/P(1)]
(P(0)=sound to be measured, P(1)= reference sound)
If a whisper is 10 times more sound pressure as our hearing threshold, what is its intensity in dB SPL?
20 dB SPL (P(0)/P(1)=10, log (10)=1, 20 x 1=20)
How do we measure the danger/risk factor of noise?
Decibels x time (OSHA Guidelines)
Distance traveled during one cycle (expressed in lambda). Dependent upon frequency and speed of sound.
What is the formula for wavelength?
lambda=c/f (lambda=wavelength, c=speed, f=frequency)
What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?
If the frequency is higher, the wavelength is...
If the wavelength is loner, the frequency is...
Does speed of sound depend on frequency and wavelength?
What is speed of sound determined by?
Density and phase of the medium.
The more dense the medium, the_____ the speed of sound.
Is a solid a slow medium of sound?
How we perceive frequency.
Is pitch affected by intensity?
How we perceive intensity/amplitude.
Is loudness affected by frequency?
Is hearing sensitivity frequency dependent?
Why does frequency affect the perception of intensity, even if the sound is not louder/softer?
Because the basilar membrane has more haircells in certain pitches, making the perception of a louder sound.
Just noticeable difference (JND)
Minimal difference between two sounds that can be perceived as having different loudness levels (JND=1dB).
What is the reference level of frequency?
1000 Hz pure tone at 60dB SPL (60 phons)
Phon scale measures
Sone scale measures
What is presumed in a sone scale?
Typical loudness range of 40-100 phones
Where are sones derived from?
Is our ear equally sensitive to frequency changes or differences at all frequencies?
Depending on the frequency, two sets of sounds may have an equal frequency difference of 100 Hz but the pitch may be
more/less difficult to hear the difference depending on the how we perceive the frequency.
Series of notes that progress step-wise up and down.
what is the western cultural musical scale?
Chromatic Musical Semitone Scale.
Disturbance between two pitches.
1/2 step, the smallest distance between two adjacent pitches.
12 semitones, doubling of frequency.
What reflects our nonlinear perception of pitch?
We have a greater sensitivity to differences between lower pitches than higher pitches.
What is the formula for a semitone difference between 2 frequencies?
39.86 x log10 [f(higher)/f(lower)]=ST
What unit accounts for better discrimination between pitches at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies?
Can every object be set into vibration?
What two questions does resonance answer?
How difficult is it to set a medium into vibration?
What determines the frequency and amplitude of the vibration?
Large increase in vibration when force is applied at a natural frequency of the medium.
Set an object into vibration and the rate at which it vibrates (set of frequencies)
Object or medium set into vibration.
The object vibrates most easily and with the widest amplitude with which type of frequencies?
Natural resonant frequencies.
What determines the frequency?
Wavelength and the properties of the medium (stiffness,mass, length)
What is the formula for resonant frequency?
Resonant frequency = c/lambda
Greater stiffness requires greater displacement force. Greater displacement force, results in greater restorative force, which means....
a quicker return back to equilibrium.
Increased stiffness results in ______ frequency of vibration.
Amount of matter (a measure of its inertia). The greater the mass, the greater the inertia.
The greater the inertial forces, the slower the displacement. Therefore, the greater the mass, the lower the ______.
The greater the length (size), the lower the ______.
frequency of vibration.
Destructive interference of reflected & incident waves. Both waves have the same frequency and occur at a boundary. This is a type of resonant pattern.
What is the result of a standing wave pattern?
Stable areas of constructive and destructive interference; particles appear not to move.
Minimum vibratory amplitude in a standing wave pattern.
Maximum vibratory amplitude.
When is a standing wave formed?
When medium vibrates at its resonant frequency.
Each of the natural frequencies of the medium is associated with...
a standing wave pattern.
The interference pattern is irregular and non repeating in a standing wave when the frequency is...
something other than a harmonic.
After initial disturbance, the object/medium vibrates freely.
Tendency of one medium to set another into vibration, driven by an outside oscillating source.
The object or medium that is set into vibration.
When an adult pushes a child on a swing synchronizing the pushes with the frequency of the swing, this is an example of...
Forced vibration and resonance.
Objects (i.e. tuning fork, pendulum, swing).
Air in a completely/partially closed container.
Is air a highly elastic or inelastic medium?
How does the volume of a container influence the resonance frequency?
Inverse influence (the larger the volume, the lower the frequency).
The smaller the volume of a container, the ______ the resonance frequency.