repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses:
"In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee things to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth the laws of peace"
A brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or even
a figure of reasoning in which one asks and then immediately answers one's own question (or raises and then settles imaginary objects); reasoning aloud
a concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
turning one's speech from one audience to another. Most often, apostrophe occurs when one addresses oneself to an abstraction, to an inanimate object, or to the absent
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by reason and logic, and asserts a position, belief, or conclusion
repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants in the stressed syllables or adjacent words
"The sergeant asked him to bomb the lawn with hotpots"
a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions
"They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding"
a sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other to emphasize a contrast
"If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought"
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by its analysis of why something happens (in contrast to Process, which describes how something happens); often links situations and events in time, with clauses preceding events
ex: the cause of a war and its effects on a national economy
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
"Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary"
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by division, which is the process of breaking a whole into parts, and classification, which is the often subsequent process of sorting individual items into categories
generally, that arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence used in an order of increasing importance, often in parallel structure
"The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best concerto in the world."
informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by, in its narrowest sense, how two or more things are similar (compare) and/or how two or more things are different (contrast)
a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions
a sentence with two or more principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses
an extended metaphor with a complex logic that encompasses a poetic passage or entire poem
details that relate to or describe actual, specific things or events
Cumulative Sentence (Loose sentence)
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases
"I have been assured by a very knowing American friend of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout."
a sentence that makes a statement or declaration
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
(The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning)
a pattern of writing or speaking which strives to inform the audience on what a term means and how it is different from other terms in its class
a pattern of writing or speaking allowing the reader to see what the author sees or feel what the author feels. Description usually emphasizes the senses by painting a picture of how something looks, sounds, smells, tastes, or feels through the use of vivid and specific detail
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region "T'all = Southern dialect)
having the primary purpose of teaching or instructing
harsh, inharmonious, or discordant sounds
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context
"Some people prefer cats; others, dogs"
a brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying
a saying or statement on the title page of a work, or used as a heading of a chapter of other section of work
an indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
a sentence expressing strong feeling, usually punctuated with an exclamation mark
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by using one or more particular cases, or examples, to illustrate or explain a general point or an abstract concept
an expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal meaning of the words in the expression; or, a regional speech or dialect
"fly on the wall"
"cut to the chase"
a sentence that gives a command
a suggestion an author or speaker makes (implies) without stating it directly
NOTE: the author/speaker IMPLIES; the reader/audience INFERS
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances
(Every cat I have seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals.)
a conclusion one draws (infers) based on premises or evidence
a sentence that asks a question
an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
the reversal of the normal or expected word order in a sentence
"Whose woods these are I think I know"
a specialized language or vocabulary of a particular group or profession
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite
(describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture")
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar
"The doctor wrote a subscription" instead or "prescription"
a concise statement, often offering advice; an adage
substituting the name of one object for another object closely associate with it
"The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting]"
a standard theme, element, or dramatic situation that recurs in various works
a dominant pattern of writing or speaking which strives to tell a story by presenting events in an orderly, logical sequence. Conventionally utilizes the first or third person perspective
an apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth
"Whoever loses his life, shall find it"
the use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms
a humorous imitation of a serious work
(ex: Weird Al Yankovich songs and "Scary Movie" series)
a comment that interrupts the immediate subject, often to quality or explain
often used to describe a writing style, characterized by an excessive display of learning or scholarship, characterized by being narrowly, stodgily, and often ostentatiously learned
a sentence that is not grammatically complete until the final clause or phrase. Accomplished by the use of parallel phrases or clauses at the opening, or by the use of succession of dependent clauses as modifiers preceding the independent clause, the periodic sentence unfolds gradually
(This is an example, as well as the definition.
Another example: "All I know about music is that not many people ever really hear it. And even then, on the rare occasion when something opens within, and the music enters, what me mainly hear, or hear corroborated, are personal, private, vanishing evocations.")
a strong verbal denunciation. The term comes from the orations of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedonia in the fourth century
the use, for rhetorical effect, of more conjunctions than is necessary or natural
"And to set forth the right standard, and to train according to it, and to help forward all students towards it according to their various capacities, this I conceive to be the business of a University"
Process (aka Process Analysis)
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by its explanation of how to do something or how something occurs. It presents a sequence of steps and shows how those steps lead to a particular result. (Can be seen often in recipes or directional manuals, a discussion of steps)
a question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer
harsh, cutting language or tone intended to ridicule
the use of humor to emphasize human weaknesses or imperfections in social institutions
having, containing, or producing the sound of or a sound resembling that of the 's' or 'sh' as in 'sash.' "And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain"
a sentence consisting of one independent clause or no dependent clause
purposeful non-standard gramatical usage; a violation of grammatical rules
(ex: unflammable; they was)
Stream of Consciousness
a technique characterized by the continuos unedited flow of conscious experience through the mind recorded on paper. Often used in "interior monologue," when the reader is privy to a character or narrator's thoughts
the context of a work which is not announced explicitly by the characters (or author) but is implicit or becomes something understood by the reader of the work as the piece unfolds. Subtext can also refer to the thoughts and motives of the characters which are only covered in an aside
a construction in which one word is used in two different sense
"After he threw the ball, he threw a fit."
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise
"All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore Socrates is mortal."
using one part of an object to represent the entire object
(ex: referring to a car simply as "wheels"
Syndesthesia (or Synaesthesia)
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another
"a loud color"
"a sweet sound"
needless repetition which adds no meaning or understanding
the artful deviation from the ordinary or principal significance of a word
(hyperbole, metaphor, and personification are some examples of tropes)
the deliberate representation of something as lesser in magnitude than it is
the everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage