Level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.
Principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences.
Part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
Principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
Psychological defense mechanisms
Unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety.
Psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation.
Psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior.
Psychological defense mechanism in which unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person forms an opposite emotional or behavioral reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations.
Defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
Defense mechanism in which a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area.
Disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.
Five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
First stage occurring in the first year to year and a half of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict.
Second stage occurring from about 1 or 1 and a half years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict.
Third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings.
Oedipus complex/Electra complex
Situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent and jealousy of the same sex parent. Males develop an Oedipus complex whereas females develop an Electra complex.
Fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
Anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults.
Personalities typified by maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney's theory.
Social cognitive learning theorists
Theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people's behavior and of a person's own expectancies of learning.
Social cognitive view
Learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipation, judging, memory, and imitation of models.
Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.
Individual's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.
Locus of control
The tendency of people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives.
A person's subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence.
The "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice.
The image of oneself that develops from interaction with important, significant people in one's life.
Warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one's life.
Conditional positive regard
Positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.
Fully functioning person
A person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings.
Theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.
Aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward action of a person.
The more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality.
Five-factor model (Big Five)
Model of personality traits that describes five basic traits dimensions.
The care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
The emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to frumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
The assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.
Field of study devoted to discovering the genetic bases for personality characteristics.
Method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion.
Tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the clients's behavior and statements.
Defense mechanism involving placing, or "projection," one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself.
Personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli.
Referring to concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular person's perception and by be influenced by biases, prejudice, and personal experiences.
Assessment in which the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day behavior in either a clinical or natural setting.
Assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale.