Chapter 9- Sculpture

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stone tools

The Colossal Olmec head is carved out of volcanic basalt, which is an extremely hard stone, using only

relief sculpture

A(n)___, often used with architecture as wall decorations, grows out of a flat, two-dimensional background, and its projection into three-dimensional space is relatively shallow.

the military victories and hunting expeditions

Most Assyrian relief sculptures commemorate

high relief

In the plaque showing a king mounted on a horse with attendants from the Court of Benin, Nigeria, the central warrior chief is carve in ___ or almost in the round.

three-dimensional space is occupied just like living things.

Freestanding sculpture is described as

kinetic

Alexander Calder is credited with inventing what type of sculpture

earth art

Art that leaves the gallery and interacts directly with nature is referred to as

spiral jetty

Robert Smithson is credited with creating the most famous and archetypal earthwork, which is titled

Kenny Scharf

During the 1985 Biennial Exhibition at the Whitney Museum in New York City, ____ created a Postmodern, raucous fun-house in a minor hallway of a major museum.

additive

In__ methods of sculpture, the sculpture is built up by modeling a flexible material like clay or plaster or building an installation.

subtractive

In___ methods of sculpture, the sculpture is carved out of hard materials such as wood or stone.

armature

When making a sculpture out of clay, artists will often form the clay around a metal skeleton, called a(n) ___, for extra strength.

lost wax method

Most cast metal sculptures are made to be hollow by using a process called the

welding and soldering

Sculptor David Smith uses the industrial techniques of __ and __ that he learned while working in an automobile factory.

Louis Nevelson

"I wanted the form, but I didn't care for the carving. I wanted something more immediate because my creativity was faster." This quote describes ____, the artist who used found wooden objects to assemble large sculptures.

Tony Oursler

Artwork that combines sculpture, video, projection, and installation as well as characters named Cyc, Sug, and Coo describes the work of

Walter Gropius

Architecture was called "the most public of arts" by the architect___.

waterfall

The Kaufman House by Frank Lloyd Wright is built over a ____.

from above

A floor plan shows the view of a home ____.

they rejected images that appeared to be idolatrous

Early Islamic architecture used decorative patterns to decorate the mosques because____.

walked around

A structure that is meant to be circumambulated is _____.

world mountain

Angkor Wat symbolizes___.

Athena

The Parthenon was devoted to ___, the patron deity of the city.

sitting high

Acropolis means____.

it was attacked

Why is the Parthenon in ruins today?

ionic

Volutes are present on a ____ column.

masonry

Another word for stone is ____.

higher ceilings

Using a pointed arch in a structure allows for ___.

internal strength of the steel cage

A modern skyscraper such as the Seagram building can have glass as the "skin" of its exterior due to ____.

a strong impression of lightness, refinement, and elegance.

Skyscrapers in America symbolize____.

colonnade, piazza

The area outside the facade of St. Peter's contains both a(n) ___, or row of columns, and a(n) ____, or courtyard.

ceramic, glass, clay

Some of the most common craft media are

Aesthetic

The __ is the time period in which a distinction was made between the applied arts, or minor arts, and the major arts of painting and sculpture.

terra cotta

Clay, used by sculptors to model statues, is also the media used to make what is known as

matte

The black-on-black designs of Maria Martinez and her husband Julian, which are inspired by historic American Indian patterns, combine both shiny and ___, or dull, surfaces.

throwing

As a potter's wheel turns, a lump of clay can be lifted and shaped by hand into a vessel, in an action called

silica

Glass is made primarily of ___, or a kind of sand, plus other minerals that add color.

chartres

The greatest period of stained glass artistry is considered to be medieval times, when multicolored glass paintings were used to fill the long windows of Gothic cathedrals. The most beautiful, best preserved set of windows can be found in

John LaFarge

Which American painter is credited with using glass the was irregular, streaked, textured, or imperfect to create an illusion of shading and depth within his stained glass, which was used to decorate private homes?

glass blowing

Glass that is heated to a molten state and picked up in a small spherical blob at the end of a long metal pipe, then blown into bubbles of various shapes is a technique referred to as

forged, rought

Metal can be cast or welded, but it can also be ___, or heated, and ____, or hammered, into shape.

applique

When fabric siljouettes are cut out and stitched onto the background of another fabric, it is called

aesthetic

The ___, an arts-and-crafts movement in the last decades of the nineteenth century, established a deliberate goal of making the useful beautiful and called for more artistic and tasteful design.

typography

The selection and manipulation of styles and sizes of lettering, which is one of the basic activities of graphic design, is called

Industrial

___ is the aesthetic refinement of products, making functional engineering solutions easy to use and attractive.

landscape

___, the alterations of the earth for aesthetic pleasure, is an ancient are practiced all over the globe. An excellent example of this type of design is found at the Gardens of Versailles in France.

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