BIO 218 - Exam 1 Important People

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Johann Freiderich Meischer

First to isolate and identify nucleic acid.

Did this by treating cells with pepsin, a molecule from pig stomach, and then he recovered nuclein.

Frederick Griffith

Discovered transformation in pneumonia-causing bacteria. (in vivo)

Sia & Dawson

developed a method of transforming bacteria in vitro

Avery, MacLeod and McCarty

Purified various types of molecules from heat-killed pathogenic bacteria, and tried to transform live nonpathogenic bacteria with each type (carbohydrates, lipids, protein, etc.) Only DNA worked.

This proved that the transformation factor that Griffith discovered was actually DNA, so that DNA is the hereditary material.

Hershey & Chase

Used radioactive material to label DNA and protein; infected bacteriophage with these labels and helped prove that DNA is the genetic material, not proteins

Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat

His most noted research was on the tobacco mosaic virus. He discovered that the genetic control of viral reproduction was RNA and that it is carried in the nucleic core of each virus

Erwin Chargaff

developed Chargaff's rules:

G = C
A = T

Maurice Wilkins

Used x-ray diffraction and x-ray crystallography to see the double-helix structure of DNA

Kavenoff, Klotz, & Zimm

Proved/discovered that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA

Rosalind Franklin

carried out the X-ray crystallography analysis and photography of DNA. this provided Watson & Crick with key information about DNA's structure.

Watson & Crick

discovered double-helix structure of B-DNA.

Meselson & Stahl

Showed that E. Coli chromosomes replicate semiconservatively, using equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation.

Taylor, Woods, & Hughes

first showed semiconservative replication of eukaryotic chromosomes with Vicia faba. (roots of beans). Determined structure of replicating bacteria using autoradiography.

Cairns

Showed that the E. Coli chromosome is a single duplex of DNA.

Schnos & Inman

Showed that the gamma chromosome in bacteriophage gamma replicates bidirectionally and is initiated at a unique origin.

Kornberg

first to photograph transcription process, and his photographs later helped scientists understand how RNA is turned into protein

Okazaki

Scientist who discovered the fragments that grow from lagging strands

Blackburn & Greider

discovered how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and telomerase

Jack Szostak

also helped discover how telomeres protect chromosomes, and created the first artifical yeast chromosome

Philip Leder

1964, revealed the triplet nature of the genetic code

was the first to define the base sequence of a complete mammalian gene

Pierre Chambon

Identified RNA Polymerase IIB

utilized gene cloning and sequencing technology to first decipher the structure of eukaryotic genes and their modes of regulation

Bert O'Malley

worked on the primary actions of steroid hormones and nuclear receptors. considered 'father of molecular endocrinology'

Alan Jefferies & Richard Flavell

DNA fingerprinting, introduced using DNA analysis for forensic science

Tom Maniatis

one of the founders of modern molecular cloning

Oscar Miller & Barbara Hamkalo

prepared an electron micrograph showing coupled transcription & translation in an E.Coli gene

Thomas Cech

discovered that RNA could cut itself strands of RNA, possibly meaning that life started out as RNA

Sidney Altman

helped Thomas Cech analyze the ribozyme, RNAse P, which led to the discovery that RNA is itself catalytic

Herrick and Irons

observed the first sickle-cell anemia patients

Tate & Beadle

demonstrated that one gene = one polypeptide

Charles Yanofsky

established that gene sequences and protein sequences are colinear

Masayasu Nomura

studied the ribosome by disassembling and assembling the ribosome into its subunits

also demonstrated that the 70S ribosome that was formed by association of the 30S and 50S subunits could not directly enter into protein synthesis; the initiation of protein synthesis was a stepwise process in which the messenger RNA first formed a complex with a 30S subunit and an initiator transfer-RNA; only after that complex formed could the 50S subunit enter into the complex

Marilyn Kozak

discovered the 'Kozak' consensus sequence, (gcc)gccRccAUGG

plays a major role in the initiation of translation

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