The study of proper action.
Examines relationships between human beings and provides principles on how we should treat each other.
4 Big Points (Ethics)
1. Scientist has responsibilities to the world at large - which relies on the accuracy of the findings
2. Ethical problems in psych can come up unknowingly
3. Ethical decisions are regulated somewhat by federal gov and professional societies
4. There are no hard-and-fast rules for every situation
Ethical Considerations of Psychological Experimentation (2)
1. People should not be harmed or affected in a way that would result in a lower level of any aspect of human functioning.
2. Scientist's right to know and seek answers to questions
Difficulties in Psych Ethics (3)
We do not understand completely the relationship between ethics and experimentation.
We do not agree what is an infringement on someone's rights, or what is permissible.
Science has few answers to the question of ethical relationships.
Experiment as an Ethical Problem (2 points)
- Nazi medical experiments had no consent, led to Nuremberg Code: Informed Consent and Voluntary Participation
- Henry Beecher identified 22 experiments in US that weren't consistent with Nuremberg Code, led to IRBs
Voluntary Participation (3 points)
- Scientist must ask participant to participate
- Participant must only participate by choice
- Participant should be free to leave
Voluntary Participation Problem
What is meant by the term voluntary?
- College students?
Informed Consent (2 points)
- Inform participant about: what will be required during the study
- Inform participant about: any potential harm
Informed Consent Problems (2)
- How much information is enough
- What about studies that require deception
The rights of the research participant (5)
- Nuremberg Code: Informed Consent
- Nuremberg Code: Voluntary Participation
- Right to Privacy
Right to Privacy (2)
- Right to have private thoughts, "private personality"
- Thoughts and feelings should not be made public without consent
Scientist cannot release data of a personal nature to others without consent
Personal identity of participant must be kept separate from his/her data
APA Ethical Guidelines History
- Developed 1953
- Made stricter in 2010 (Bush interrogation technique response)
Institutional Review Boards
- US Dept of Health and Human services requires it for all research with human participants.
IRB Goal (1) and considerations (3)
Goal: To determine whether participants' rights and welfare are adequately protected
- Long term effects
- Societal benefits
Any study in which participant is deceived about the true purpose of the experiment or exp. procedures.
Uses deception to try and create a situation where participant sees the world and what he/she is being asked to do in a certain way
Obedience-to-Authority Research (2 questions)
-Under what conditions would one person obey authority instructions to harm another
- Would participants be willing to harm other participants on command of experimenter.
- Process of explaining the true purpose of the experiment afterwards
- Experiment removes any misconceptions and offers a full discussion of the experiment
Making a Hypothesis Concrete (2)
- Operational definition
- Decide how to define concept or construct
Redefines the concept/construct in terms of observable operations that anyone can see and repeat.
Asks whether the procedure that we are using is an adequate op. definition of the construct we are measuring.
- Is your measure looking at what you're trying to assess?
Making our Hypothesis Logical (2 questions/2 reasonings)
-"I wonder what will happen if"
- - Hypothesis -> Inductive reasoning
- "I expect this would happen if"
- - Hypothesis -> Deductive reasoning (if...then...)
Creating Testable Hypotheses Goal
Testable hypothesis that clearly spells out a specific relationship among variables
Measurement Goals (2 + explanation)
Reliability (across tests) - Test-retest consistency, high positive correlation between the scores for each test.
Validity (internal) - e.g. measurement tools are consistent (think 10 scales weight you consistent weight)
Scientists Guide to Having an Idea (4 steps)
1. Preparation - become interested in a problem, learn about it, examine it
2. Incubation - stage at which scientist just lets the topic incubate in mind
3. Illumination - when solution emerges into consciousness
4. Verification - when the solution is tested to see if it fits real worlds
4 Points of introduction
- provide background info about the phenom you are studying, explains how you developed your hypoth
- Begin with an explanation of your research problem in broad terms
- Describe what we already know about phenom
- Conclude with a clear statement of purpose, incl. hypoth