Condition in which the upper portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity through an opening of the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus
About 1 to 1 1/2 liters of food and fluid at a time
How much does the stomach hold?
Into tiny capillaries and lymph vessels located in the walls of the small intestine and transmitted to the body cells via circulatory system
Where are nutrients absorbed?
It can be a frequent problem, especially because of a decrease in dietary and fluid intake
Constipation is a problem with older adult because?
The duodenum, the upper part of the small intestine
Where is the most frequent location for peptic ulcers?
The causes are parasites, infection, and bacteria
What are the causes of acute diarrhea?
Large sac-like organ that holds food for the beginning of the digestive process
Salt, sweet, sour, and bitter
What are the different types of taste buds?
Vomiting with force
Eating disorder that is characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by purging of the food with laxatives and vomiting
Define Bulimia Nervosa
The nerve cells in the hypothalamus control it by producing chemicals that suppress or stimulate hormone secretions from the pituitary
What controls the pituitary gland?
The enhances of protein synthesis, decreases glucose use, and promotes the destruction of fats
What do growth hormones do?
It's 70 to 110 mg/dL
What is normal fasting blood sugar?
What is graves' disease most common cause of?
With diet, exercise, administration of oral hypoglycemic medications
How is type 2 diabetes treated?
They are nervousness, heart palpitations, increased intestinal tract activity, weight loss
What are the symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?
Maturation process in the ovarian follicles, stimulating the development of corpus luteum in a female
Luteinizing Hormone is responsible for what?
The triodothyronine, calcitonin, thyroxine
What hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?
Damaged to the adrenal gland cortex, decreasing the production of adrenocortical hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, androgens)
Define Addison's disease
Gestational (pregnancy), Type1 juvenile ( insuline dependant) Type 2 adult-onset (non-insulin dependant)
What types of diabetes are there?
Chemical transmitters that regulate development, growth, mood
What are homones?
Estrogen and progesterone
What do ovaries produce?
What do testes produce?
To regulate electrolyte and water balance, promotes sodium and chloride retention and potassium excretion
What are the function of Aldosterone?
A steroid stress hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
What is Cortisol?
Exocrine(amylase, lipase), Endocrine( α cells-glucagon, β cells-insulin, Δ - somatostatin)
Parathyroid, pituitary ,tonsils, thyroid, testes, ovaries, thymus, pancreas, adrenals, pineal, salivary(parotid, sublingual, submandibular)
What are the Glands of the endocrine system?
The process when a Graafian follicle ruptures on the ovarian cortex, and an ovum releases into the pelvic cavity and into the fallopian tube.
What is Ovulation?
Prostate, membranous, penile
What are the three sections of the male urethra?
Lymph nodes, above the collarbone, brain
What are the common places for breast cancer to metastasize?
Hormonal influence, late menopause, family history
What are the risk factors of developing breast cancer?
Occurs when large quantities of blood fill the cavernous spaces in the erectile tissue.
When is the erectile state in the penis?
Menopause, pregnancy ,dieting(malnutrition)
What are Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) causes?
What does a pap test screening (HPV) prevents ?
Interruption of the stream, feeling of urgency, acute urinary retention
What are the symptom of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?
Presence of painful cramps during menstruation
Includes blood in the urine, difficulty urinating, dyspareunia (painful intercouse), heavy menstrual bleeding, irregular periods, nausea and vomiting, pelvic pain after intercourse or exercise and dysmenorrhea.
What are the symptoms of endometriosis?
The perimetrium (outer layer), the myometrium (muscular middle layer), and the endometrium (mucous membrane lining the inner surface)
What are the three layers of the uterine wall?
The endometrium layer
What layer of the uterus is most affected by the menstrual cycle?
Rare disorder that develops when too much cortisol is released by the adrenal cortex as a result of stimulation of the pituitary
Define Cushing's disease
A condition in which excessive growth hormone is secreted during childhood, before the closure of the bone growth plates, causing overgrowth of the long bones, muscles, and organs; usually caused by a pituitary gland tumor
An enlarged thyroid gland, most commonly caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid
Four glands around the dorsal and lower aspect of the thyroid gland that secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone)
Define Parathyroid glands
Synthesizes and secretes releasing hormones, such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GTRH), and releasing factors, such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), prolactin-releasing factor (PRF), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone-releasing factor (MRF).
The onset of the menstrual cycle
An infection transmitted through exchange of semen, blood, and other body fluids or by direct contact with the affected body areas of another person; also known as venereal disease
Define Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
An enlargement of the prostate gland, usually occurring in men older than 50 years, which compresses the urethra, restricting the normal flow of urine; also known as beign prostatic hypertrophy
Define Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
A condition in which the endometrium (the tissue lining the uterus) is found outside the uterus, usually in the pelvis or abdominal cavity
Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
Venereal disease in also know as?