20th Century Music
|Impressionism||important movement in visual art and music from 1890-1920 with Debussy at the forefront, followed by Fauré and Ibert.|
meant as an insult by critics to describe Impressionistic art's hazy scenes and colour schemes.
Composers interpret subject in personal style, conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed picture.
beyond major-minor tonality, exploring modes, parallel octaves and chords and non western influences
blurring of classical forms, exaggerated attention to musical colour, a focus on non-tonal progressions.
Debussy: to create vague, watery sound used techniques such as new chords with 9th, 11th and 13th notes for no clear sense of harmonic resolution.
Parallel movements of groups of chords, gliding chords.
Whole tone scales, modes
rhythm- made to sound like it was floating, often no distinct pulse; tied notes across barlines
|Whole tone scales||six different notes each separated by two semitones|
|Modes||used before equal temperament developed in the Baroque era with only white keys. each mode has a different pattern of tones and semitones|
|Expressionism||musical style developed by Schonberg, Webern and Berg (the second viennese school). The german response and opposite of French Impressionism.|
explores recesses of the soul.
favoured very expressive harmonic language, disjunct melodies and use of instruments in extreme ranges and timbres
attempted to develop more powerful means of communicating expression
final result: beyond boundaries of major/minor system. The twelve tone system
|Twelve Tone system|| developed in Expressionism.|
every semitone within the octave is treated equally
|Jazz||early 20th century: elements from African music blended with the popular and art traditions of the West in America.|
Many styles, from Dixieland to big band.
Composers: Duke Ellington and Gunther Schuller "Third Stream"
Influence of Jazz spread to even the Impressionistic composers like Debussy and Ravel
|"Third Stream"|| coined by Duke Ellington and Gunther Schuller (composers)|
Classical = first stream, Jazz = second
Third Stream combines the two.
|Minimalism||By 1970, a tread meant to simplify musical language by reducing compositions to barest essentials to concentrate attention on a few basic details. |
melodic, rhythmic and harmonic patters repeated with very little variation.
is a reaction to complex serialism
composers: Steve Reich and Philip Glass
|Serialism||method of composition developed from the tone row in which various musical elements such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics and tone colour may be put in order according to a fixed series. |
extremely complex, totally controlled music in which twelve tone principles are extended to elements of music other than pitch
developed by the Second Viennese School composers then used by others such as Stravinsky, Stockhausen, Babbitt and Messiaen.
|Indeterminacy|| flexible form in works where performers determine the order and alternation of movements. Also known as Aleatoric (alea means dice)|
Composers: Lutoslawski experimented with aleatoric counterpoint.
Result: combination of timbre and texture is unique in each performance.
|Neo-Classicism||a return to baroque period's more objective style and form. |
not to express emotions but to maipulate abstract combinations of sound
absolute music>program music
form in inself became an ideal, not a vessel to pour emotion into
Stravinsky and Prokofiev, both were neo-Classicist for a part of their careers
|Non-Western Influences||Folk Music inspiration - like Bela Bartok, collected and published folk music with traditional rhythmic and melodic ideas.|
Authentic recordings of Asian and African music made increasing available.
Debussy's exposure to Gamelan (indonesian instrumental ensemble with many brass, percussion instruments)
composers began to hear music based on a completely different system.
ex. Gyorgy Ligeti's Poeme Symphonique (1962) scored for an orchestra of 100 metronomes.
|Dissonance||two or more notes sounded together which are discordant|
|Polychords|| popular, two or more simple chords used simultaneously (ex. a different key for each hand in piano music)|
however, still a sense of tonality
|Atonality||total absence of any tonal centre or key|
|Pantonal|| term by Arnold Schonberg to express his music|
means the inclusion of all tonalities rather than Atonality
|Expanded tonality||extremely chromatic harmony, but music still has some relationship to a tonal centre|
|Musical Characteristics|| Dissonance & Chromaticism with Poly Chords|
Dodecaphonic or 12 tone system
modes of limited transposition
modes in general
|Popular Genres: vocal|| Romantic Period: Opera; song cycles; individual solo pieces with accompaniment|
Verismo "realistic opera" developed during early 20th century extended into unique Expressionistic opera "Wozzeck"
New genres: Cabaret-style theature, musical theatre: musical play and musical comedy (Broadway, NY)
|Popular Genres: Instrumental/Dance|| Ballet: music and rhythm written in conjunction with planned body movements.|
ex. Diaghilev established his company Les Ballets Russe in 1909
|Summary of Musical developments||Asymmetrical meters|
unconventional rhythmic patters and meters
avoidance of traditional harmonic implications and resolutions
free use of dissonance, chromaticism and atonality
large melodic leaps and a wide melodic range
less lyrical melodies
less regular phrase structure
more detailed expression marks
more fragmented and angular melodic lines
polychords; polyrhythm; polytonality (two or more chords combined to form a more complex harmonic unit)
exploration of sound with electronic manipulation
|Achille-Claude Debussy: Dates, Nationality, Famous Point|| 1862-1918|
Most important composer for the Impressionistic movement
|Achille-Claude Debussy: family, education|| parents were shopkeepers|
first piano lesson age 7
age 11, entered Paris Conservatoire
studied piano and composition with Ernest Guiraud
|Achille-Claude Debussy: Career/life||-worked for Nadezhda von Meck for two years; won second place in Prix de Rome|
- part of trio of Mme. von Meck as a pianist
-1884 won Prix de Rome for cantata "L'enfant prodigue"
-after 1887, focused on composing and appeared rarely as a performer. Inspired by Wagner's music in 1888, but later turned against most german music
-1894 Premier of Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun after working on it for two years
-1 decade: turned Maurice Maeterlinck's play Pelleas et Melisande into an opera
-1901 became music critic of La revue Blance
-1899 maried Rosalie Texier, divorced in 1904 to marry Emma Bardac in 1908
-Loved his daughter Claude-Emma, nickname Chou-Chou, wrote Children's Corner piano suite
-Appointed member of the advisory board of the Paris Conservatory
-1909 begins to compose first book of the Preludes
-Wrote his own 12 etudes after being commissioned to produce an edition of Chopin's music in 1915
-disliked term impressionist, prefered Symbolist
admired literary works of Mallarme, Rimbaud & Edgar Allen Poe.
-had cancer in 1909, depressed about WWI, but continued to compose & perform. Became increasing patriotic in his writing
|Achille-Claude Debussy: works organized||by year they were written, or by L & number for Francois Lesure who catalogued his works in a book in 1977|
|Achille-Claude Debussy: Portfolio and genres||Opera Pelléas et Mélisande|
Orchestral music: `prelude to the afternoon of a faun`, `La mer`
Music for the ballet 'Jeux'
Chamber music: string quartet, sonatas for cello, violin, flute, viola and harp
Vocal works: 'l'enfant prodigue' and 'beau soir'
Piano: 'préludes' (Vol. I & II) , 'pour le piano' ; 'suite Bergamaque; deux arabesque; Estampes
|Achille-Claude Debussy: Influence, Contributions||-early influenced by Fauré and Wagner, Satie helped turn him away from Wagner|
-inspired by russian music, fellow french composers and the Javanese gamelan, rebelled against the Popular German Romantic style
-his style is lyrical, creates mood/atmosphere through orchestral/harmonic colours
-music vocab includes whole tone, modal and pentatonic scales first experienced at Paris World Exposition 1889
-creates static quality to music using ostinatos, pedal points to blur rhythmic pulse
-Symbolist (from Symbolist poetry) aimed to use the mre suggestive properties of words, their sonority. Art should appeal to the senses before the intellect. Debussy enjoyed company of Impressionist poets and painters gathered at home of poet Mallarmé
-objective: liberate music from past conventions and traditions; released the concept of chords from their traditional function in regard to the movement and goal of the music.
-influenced Bartok, Webern and Varese.
-`Pelléas et Mélisande' launched his international career . First Impressionistic opera, understated sounds almost improvised in its style
-Vocal works include a wide variety of genres, chorus to orchestra to four voice a cappella
-Chamber music: there is great romanticism in his String Quartets
-Many orchestral works: symphonic suite (tone poem) La Mer is the closest Debussy ever came to writing a symphony
-Debussy`s études carry on the tradition of the concert étude established by Chopin as a genre which combines pianistic technical skills with artistic beauty.
-Debussy`s two books of Préludes similar to Chopin`s Préludes as well
|Achille-Claude Debussy: Musical Characteristics||-orchestral sound is unique: often a single, delicate totality to which individual instruments contribute colour|
-instruments often used in unusual registers and combinations with emphasis on solo woodwinds, muted brass and soft percussion
-avoids defined sections in forms and developmental techniques associated with sonata form
-piano music flows naturally, featuring unusual voicings, pedal points and almost constant use of damper pedal
-usually no tonal centre established. Uses chords with added tones (especially the 2nd and 6th); chords with omitted tones; parallel chords; 9th, 11th and 13th chords
-themes and motives often fragmented and uses modes, pentatonic and wholte-tone scales. Many works formed from one single continuous theme that develops with changes, growing out of and emerging into the next
-deliberate vague metrical feeling, little pulse so music does not feel predictable or structured
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Dates, Nationality, Famous Point|| 1882-1917|
Being the most influential composer of the 20th century
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Family, Education|| -Father was a leading singer with Imperial Opera|
-given piano lessons but expected to study law
-interest in composition grew, had private harmony lessons to enter conservatory
-age 20, shows compositions to Nikolai Rimsky-Kosakov, head of Russian Conservatory, given private lessons for 3 years
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Career/Life||-married first cousin Catherine Nossenko 1906|
-1909 several of his pieces (ex. Fireworks) performed, caught Sergei Diaghilev's eye
-Diaghilev commissions a work for Les Ballets Russes. For 1910 season, a ballet score for The Firebird, which was a success. Continues for two more seasons with Petrushka and the controversial Rite of Spring, which was the most dramatic and shocking opening night in music history (riot)
-WWI, Stravinsky and family moved to Switzerland in isolation
-Stravinsky developed his skills and reputation as a concert pianist and conductor to increase income
-after death of wife and mother 1939, Stravinsky goes to US, Hardvard, delivered lectures
-Poetics of Music, a series of six lectures: an explanation/account of his experience with music
claimed music is incapable of expressing anything but itself
-felt music must submit to rules, no matter how arbitrary
-after outbreak of WWI, stayed in America and remarried. Lived in Hollywood for 25+ years
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Portfolio and Genres|| Ballets: Petrushka, Rite of Spring, L'oiseau de feu, Agon, Histoire du Soldat|
Opera-oratorio: Oedipus Rex
Operas: The Rake's Progress
Orchestral works: Symphony of Winds, Symphony in C, Circus Polka, Ebony Concerto for clarinet and swing band
Choral works: Requiem Canticles
Concerto for two pianos
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Career Section I|| Early Russian Years (1882-1914)|
after his training with Rimsky-Korsakov, becomes famous for his music in ballets L'oiseau de Feu, Petrushka and Rite of Spring
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Career Section II|| Transitional Years (1914-1920)|
Lived in Switzerland during WWI, far from the lavish productions of pre-war paris. Influenced by 18th century music, wrote in an austere, Neo-Classical style in works such as the poetic dance-drama Histoire du Soldat and the Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Career Section III|| Middle, Neo-Classical Years (1920-1952)|
wrote the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex in 1927. Maturity evident in The symphony of Psalms (1920). Opera The Rake's Progress created in the image of Mozart's operas
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Career Section IV|| Final, Serialist Years (1954-1971)|
met Robert Craft who encouraged Stravinsky's highly personal serial style 1948
push boundaries of music and his own potential as a composer with works such as his last ballet Agon (1957)
|Igor F. Stravinsky: Music Characteristics||-early studies with Rimsky-Korsakov evident in his exotic orchestration and use of Russian folk songs|
-later embraced 12 tone music, despite having criticized it in the past
-opening of ballet Petrushka demonstrates polytonality
-revitalized rhythm in his music with methods: constantly changing meters; unpredictable rhythmic accents; masterful used of unexpected silences
-influenced by Debussy, Ravel and Tchaikovsky but went beyond their traditions, created won unique style
-meant for his music to challenge, even disturb audiences and force a reaction
-used cadences and melodies based on the octatonic scale
|Leonard Bernstein: Dates, Nationality, Famous Point|| 1918-1990|
Conducting and appearing on the young People's Concerts television series
|Leonard Bernstein: Fam, education|| parents were Russian Immigrants|
took piano lessons as a child, age 12 studied piano at the New England Conservatory of Music.
Studied at Harvard University and graduated in 1939.
Continued studies at Curtis Institute 1939-1941, studying piano, orchestration and conducting
|Leonard Bernstein: Career/life||-New York Philharmonic conducting debut Nov. 14, 1943 substituting for ill Bruno Walter.|
-Assistant conductor at Tanglewood festival 1942, headed orchestral and conducting departments after 1951 for many years
-1940s, begins working with director Jerome Robbins for ballets
-1944, premiere of Fancy Free at Metropolitan Opera House success
-Musical comedy On the Town, based on a ballet w/ Robbins
-Stature enjoyed in Vienna in 1966 transformed him from flamboyant to more mellow
-won Grammys, Emmys and a Tony award
|Leonard Bernstein: Portfolio & Genres|| Musicals: Candide, On the Town, Wonderful Town, West Side Story|
Piano & Orchestral works: The Age of Anxiety
Symphonies, No.3 "Kaddish"
Ballet: Fancy Free
Operas : A Quiet Place
Film Score: On the Waterfront
|Leonard Bernstein: Influence & Contributions||best remembered for breaking down musical barriers.|
career based on two beliefs:"Music is fun" "Music is important"
Wrote timeless melodies in West Side Story, introduced modern audiences to the "serious music" of Beethoven, Brahms and Mahler. Distinctly american through the way he moves between concert music and contrasting popular styles such as jazz, blues and the Broadway idiom. Desire to synthesize jazz and pop themes into more traditional, "classical" styles.
Varied music, broad range of influences. Style based on dramatic juxtapositions ex. lively rhythms with asymmetrical meters, surprising accents, motivic development and speech rhythms in vocal music. melodies often have a wide range, even in vocal.
Young People's Concerts, on television 1958 - 1972 won 4 Emmys. Brought musical concepts and history to younger viewers. Influenced old and young.
|Leonard Bernstein: Musical Characteristics||-experimented with 12 tone music, but felt it wasn't very "honest" thus, his Chichester Psalms were very tonal|
-firstly a theatrical composer with "catchy" melodies
-gave lectures on the development of music from origins to 20th century struggle between tonality and atonality; knowledgeable about music trends, wrote music to appeal to everyone
-great pianist, composer and conductor with personal charisma
-inspired by Jewish heritage in works Symphony No.2 "Jeremiah" and the Chichester Psalms.
-wrote pieces for both traditional genres (symphony) and modern works (Broadway musicals)
|Alexina Louie: Dates, Nationality, Famous point|| 1949--|
Being one of the most performed and celebrated composers in Canada today
|Alexina Louie: Family & Education|| born in Vancouver, China Town. Daughter of successful importer/exporter of Chinese foods.|
piano lessons age 7 w? Jean Lyons
ARCT (performance) age 17
piano studies UBC, composition classes, Bachelor of Music in Music History 1970
U of California Masters of Arts in Composition 1974
|Alexina Louie: Awards||-National Arts Centre Award with the National Arts Centre Orchestra 2002|
-2x Juno Award
-Chalmer Award for vocal movements of "Gallery Fanfares, Arias and Interludes", independently titled Obsessions
-1994 V. Matejcek Concert Music Award for being the most frequently performed Canadian Classical Composer (won before in 1990)
-1999 Jules Leger Prize in Chamber Music
-1998 Prix de Jeunesse at Cannes Film Festival, film score co written with husband
-Order of Ontario
|Alexina Louie:Portfolio|| Electroacoustic: Molly|
Orchestral: Music for a Thousand Autumns, Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, The eternal Earth
Chamber: Cadenzas, Music from Night's Edge
Piano: Music for PIano
5 min Opera Buffa Toothpaste
Harp: From the Eastern Gate
Vocal: Songs of Enchantment
|Alexina Louie: Influences/characteristics||-influenced by Chinese Heritage, her theoretical and historical studies. A voracious investigator of scores, recordings, literature, poetry and visual arts. developed a uniquely personal, expressive style|
-a musical blend of East and West
-spent some time studying the ch'in, an ancient Chinese zither
-explores yin and yang principles: dark and light,introspection and extroversion.