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associative learning.

1. Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:

observable behavior.

2. John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:

conditioned stimulus.

3. Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)

UR.

4. Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):

CS; US

5. Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) _____.

spontaneous recovery.

6. Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:

generalization.

7. A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates:

behaviorist

8. The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.

Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.

9. The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by:

shaping

10. In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:

conditioned

11. If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.

decreases; increases

12. Negative punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.

fixed-ratio

13. Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

variable-interval

14. Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.

observational learning.

15. If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:

classical conditioning.

1. If you have a frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:

unconditioned stimulus

2. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):

CR.

3. You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n):

classical conditioning.

4. People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokemon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of:

discrimination.

5. After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of:

biological predispositions.

6. If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:

operant conditioning

7. If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:

negative reinforcement.

8. Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:

conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

9. A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.

variable-ratio

10. For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.

fixed-interval

11. During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

positive punishment.

12. To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a:

cognitive processes

13. Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides enhancement for the role of ________ in operant behavior.

mirror neurons.

14. An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity as she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:

Bandura

15. Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

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