AP Biology - Chapter 2: Chemical Principles

40 terms by MichaelDaniel

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Covalent bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms...the strongest of the three chemical bonds

Neutron

the uncharged particle in the atomic nucleus

Proton

the positively charged particle in the atomic nucleus; a hydrogen ion

Atomic number

thenumbers he number of protons in the nucleus

Electron

particles with a negative charge that move in shells around the nucleus

Hydrogen bond

a weak bond formed, for example, by the slight positive charge at the hydrogen end of the water molecule reacting with the negative end of other molecules

Ionic bond

a bond formed by the gain or loss of electrons from the outer electron shell

Substrate

the substance upon which an enzyme acts

Enzyme

a protein that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction

Molecular weight

the sum of the atomic weights of a molecule's atoms

Catabolism

the collective term for all decomposition reactions

Mole

the number of grams equal to molecular weight

Anabolism

the collective term for all synthesis reactions

Valence

the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom; the combining capacity of an atom

Cation

an ion with a positive charge

Isomer

one of two molecule's with the same chemical formula but different structures

Buffer

prevents drastic change in pH

Salt

substance that dissociates into ions that are neither OH- nor H+

Acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; a proton donor

Base

dissociates into one or more negative hydroxide ions such as OH-

Molecule

combinations of atoms that have gained stability by completing the full complement of electrons in the outer-most shell

Polysaccharide

eight or more glucose molecules in a chain

Lipid

Sterol; large organic compounds made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen; examples are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids; are insoluble in water and used by cells for energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings, such as in membranes

Condensation

production of a molecule of water during synthesis

Protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

Conjugated proteins

lipoprotein

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

results from the release of energy by separation of the terminal phosphate group

DNA

Nucleic acid; deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

Isotope

same number of protons in the nucleus but different weights

Compound

a molecule containing at least two kinds of atoms, such as water

Molecule

an atom that is stable because it has its full complement of electrons

Stereoisomer

the D and L forms of an amino acid; isomers with the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms

Product

the substance formed by a reaction

Disaccharide

sucrose; sugar with two monosaccharides

Nucleotide

purines or pyrimidines attached to a pentode sugar, but without a phosphate group; monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

Carbohydrate

have a hydrogen-to-oxygen ratio of 2:1; compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms...major source of energy for the human body

Cytosine

in DNA, it will pair with guanine

Uracil

in RNA, it replaces thymine

Deoxyribose

the five-carbon sugar in DNA

Peptide

bonds between amino acids in proteins

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