Biology Notes Unit 1

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Classification

a system of disguishing groups for purposes of identification. A means or devise for sorting into groups with similar characteristics.

Family

a taxanomic category containing a group of similar genera. between the taxa of order and genus

Fixity of Species

An interpretation of scientists and Bible scholars from midieval times to the 1800s that there is no change of any kind, no varition within a population. Each kind of living thing has some ideal model to which all other living things of the same kind more or less correspond.

Genetics

The science of heredity; how different characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring.

Genus

A taxonomic category containing a group of similar species, occurring between the taxa of family and species. The genus is the first name of the scientific name.

Kind

A group of living things with certain similar characteristics. Dogs and horses are kinds of living things.

Population

All the individual organisms of a kind or taxon, or a group of organisms living in an area.

Species

The smallest taxonomic category, containing only similar varieties of an organism. The second word of the scientific name. A species is designated by its scientific name, giving the genus and species.

Taxonomic System

A plan or arrangement of grouping categories for the purpose of classifying.

Taxonomist

A scientist who classifies organisms.

Taxonomy

The science of the classification of organisms.

Variation

Differences that occur among the offspring of a particular species.

Taxonomy

Science that deals with Classification and Organization

Similarities and differences

When grouping and identifying living things, classification is based on ___________ and ___________.

Genesis

When Moses wrote the book of __________, workable principles of taxonomy had not been developed.

Genetics

Genesis speaks of parents producing offspring "after its own kind." This refers to the science of _________.

Use

In ancient times people classified plants and animals by _____.

Renaissance

Scientists resumed observing and studying real plants and animals during the __________.

John Ray

______ _____ introduced a new method of grouping by similarities in appearance.

There is a multitude of possible schemes

An ideal taxonomic system is not easy to develop because:

Theophrstos

"Father of Botany"

300 B.C.

Theophrastos was considered the "father of botany" in the approximate year of _________.

Cordus

One of the first scientists of the Renaissance to advance taxonomy through first hand observations was _______.

Renaissance

The first use of using two words as a scientific name was introduced during the __________.

Linnaeus

The Swedish botanist who made the greatest contributions to taxonomy was _________.

Flower

Linnaeus classified plants according to their _______.

variation does not exist within a kind

Linnaeus' concept of kinds differed from ours today in holding that: __________________________.

1700s

The beginning of modern taxonomy occurred during the _____.

after its own kind

The concept of "fixity of species" was a common belief based on a very limited understanding of the Biblical principle "________ ___ ____ ______."

define

The created "kinds" like "species" is not easy to ______.

taxonomic orders

The current understanding of created "kinds" is related to higher ________ ________.

Binomial Nomenclature

The two-name system of naming living things used in classification.

Biosphere

All life on earth.

Class

A taxonomic category containing a group of similar orders. Between order and division in plant classification, between order and phylum in animal classification.

Division

In plant classification, a grouping of similar classes. Between kingdom and class in taxa, as a taxonomic category.

International Code of Nomenclature

An elaborate set of rules for naming organisms, one set for plants, another for animals, decided upon by botanists or zoologists from different countries.

Kingdom

The largest taxonomic category.

Order

A taxonomic category containing a group of similar families. Between the taxa of class and family.

Phylum

A grouping of similar classes. A taxonomic category between kingdom and class.

Taxon

The categories used in classifying organisms, e.g., class, order.

Subjective

Interpretations based upon emotions or opinion are considered to be ___________.

Living

Plants are _____ organisms.

Precise

A _______ scientific description of life is not easy to find.

Global

Common names given to organisms may be useful locally, but may become meaningless on a __________ basis.

Linneus

The currently used binomial nomenclature was developed by ___________.

It was the language of all educated people

Why does binomial nomenclature use Latin?

Generic, Species

In binomial nomenclature, the genus functions as the _______ name and the species functions as the _____ name.

Taxa

The rankings of Class, Order, and Family are referred to as ____ .

Families

An "Order" may be subdivided into (consist of) several _______.

Latin

The language of taxonomy is usually ____.

Genus species

The correct form for writing binomial nomenclature is __________.

Soul and Spirit

Humans differ from all other life forms by possessing a ______ and a ____.

Names mean different things to different people, Foreign names may not be understood, Many names may exist for the same organism, there may be no common name for an organism

Problems in using common names to universally identify living things include _______________.

Morphology

The form or appearance of an organism. The collection of physical characteristics and the structure which make up an organism. A basis for species definition.

Reproductive Isolation

The separation of populations of organisms by some type of barrier to produce variations of species. No reproduction or exchange of genes occurs between the separated groups. A basis for species definition.

Subjective

With bias. Thoughts or interpretations based on the feelings and personal evaluations of the scientist.

Species

The lowest rank of taxa is the _____.

Not

The exact boundaries, limitations, and meaning of species is _____ known and agreed upon universally.

Morphology, Reproductive Isolation

The taxon "species" may be defined by which of the following concepts?

Structure, Color, Shape, Physical Traits

The classification of species by morphology involves ________.

Morphology

Which of the two methods for determining the species taxon would involve greater subjectivity?

Differences

The concept of reproductive isolation relates more toward genetic _________ to distinguish between species.

The numerous varities might be classified as distinct species

If you were to classify the many breeds of dogs by morphology, what would be inferred regarding species?

Species

According to reproductive isolation, all the varieties of dogs would be considered as one _____.

they are identical species according to the concept of morphology, they are separate species according to the concept of reproduction

Regarding the relationship of horses to donkeys _______________.

No, according to reproductive isolation, Yes, according to morphology

Are horses and donkeys of the same species?

Offspring of a horse and a donkey are unable to reproduce

Horses and donkeys are not of the same species when defined by reproductive isolation because __________.

Subjective

Taxonomy is a rigorous, _______ science.

Conclusive Classification

The complexity of life, combined with our limited knowledge sometimes prevents ____________.

Australopithecus

What is the genus of the popular fossils which are similar to "Lucy"?

Objectivity

Computerized analysis of the "Lucy" type fossil has helped to add ______ to the classification of fossil taxa

Observations

objective piece of information depends more on actual _______.

Lycophyta

Which division of the plant kingdom includes club mosses?

Echinodermata

Which phylum of the animal kingdom includes sea urchins?

Pteridopsida

Which division of the plant kingdom includes the ferns?

Horsetails

Sphenopsida is a division that includes which plant?

Mollusca

Squids are part of which phylum of the animal kingdom?

Arthropoda

Lobsters belong to which phylum of the animal kingdom?

Chordata

Which phylum of the animal kingdom includes all organisms which possess a spine (backbone)?

1,000,000

The total number of animal species is about ______.

More

There are _________ animal species than plant species.

Plant Characteristics

green, conductive tissue, seeds, flowers

Arthropoda

largest phylum of animals

Animal Characteristics

segmented digestive system, appendages

Common Name

popular usage

Tracheophyta

largest division of plants

Order

groups of families

Characteristics

To a taxonomist a plant is the sum total of all its _______.

Keying

Teeth patterns in animals and thorns in plants are examples of characteristics which a taxonomist might observe for ______.

Grass

Corn is a type of _____.

Biology, Zoology, Botany

Taxonomy is an organizing science used in ______.

Taxonomists

Classification systems vary with ______.

Scientific Name

The name given to an organism which causes the least confusion and is the same in any language or in any country is the ________.

Variety

When a species is made up of different smaller groups, each of those smaller groups is known as a ____.

Key

A tool used in classification is a _____.

Dichotomous Key

A list of two choices that follows in a sequence for identification is a ____________.

They are greatly different

Which statement is most correct regarding the difference between plants and animals?

Plants

Of the following organisms, which is more likely to be very slow to respond to stimuli? Plants or Animals

Plantae

An organism which produces its food by photosynthesis may be placed in the ________ Kingdom

Genus

A species designation should always include the _____.

Phylum

If an Animalia taxon ends in "ata" it must be a ______.

Phylum

All animals which possess a spine are included in the same _____.

Animal Husbandry

The science of controlling or improving certain features of livestock through genetic breeding programs.

Archeology

The science of research and study of artifacts and ancient cultures.

Artificial System

In taxonomy a classification plan based on grouping by certain outstanding features of a plant or animal.

Economic Uses

Plants or animals selected or sorted from others on the basis of certain features which are salable. Food and clothing, plants and animals are bought, sold, and traded.

Evolution

A model of origins based on the theory that random natural processes produced the first "living" cell from nonliving chemicals. From this starting point organisms have increased in complexity and variety.

Natural System

In taxonomy, a classification plan based on assumed relationships of common ancestry or evolution.

Objectivity

Without bias. Thoughts or interpretations based on the features and characteristics of the organism, instead of on the feelings of the scientist.

Origin

The beginning. A coming into existence or being. The beginning of the earth or the universe

Philosophy

A body of ideas based on personal opinion.

Plant Breeding

The science of controlling or improving certain features of crops and vegetables through genetic breeding programs.

Speciation

The development of new species and new kinds from an ancestral species. A concept of evolution.

Verify

To test for truth or accuracy. To prove accuracy or truth by evidence.

Taxonomic

A person's views on origins may be greatly influenced by embracing a particular _________ system.

ancestry of organisms, family trees, genetic relationships, evolutionary descent

A natural taxonomic system currently in use attempts to show _______________.

variations are limited to the confines of lower taxa, observable changes from one basic kind into another have never been documented

Observations from plant breeding and animal husbandry over thousands of years has shown ____________.

Categories

If the theory of evolution were true it would not be possible to classify organisms into distinct _____.

because distinct populations of living things exist due to barriers to reproductive change, because fossils may be classified into distinct taxa due to the persistence of gaps

Why have the gaps among existing organisms as well as the fossil records remained after hundreds of years of research?

missing links, a distinct and obvious lack of transition between all higher levels of taxa

What is meant by "gaps" within living things or fossils?

variation among species is not the result of evolution

The science of genetics has demonstrated repeatedly that _______.

Morphology

An artificial system looks at _______.

Common Ancestors

A natural system looks at __________.

Genetics

Two practices which have helped in the development of understanding the variations within "kinds" of living things are animal husbandry and ____________.

Kinds

If the theory of evolution were true, there would be records of observable changes between the basic ______ of organisms.

Creation

A model of origins based on scientific evidence which supports the biblical account of an omniscient creator.

speculation

Regarding the origin of life the evolutionary theory still relies on ________.

Faith

Ultimately a measure of ______ will be required when choosing the evolution or creation taxonomic system.

Objective

______ evidence is available to "weight" the pro's and con's of origin models.

kinds, reproduced, boundaries

Creation: Basic ______ of life forms were created by God. These organisms have consistently been ______from their own kind within __________of variations.

nonliving, random, many, complexity

All life on Earth developed from ________ matter by natural _______ processes. One initial life form gave rise to _________ kinds of organisms which have continued to increase in ________ time.

speculated genetic possibilities

Speciation is founded on the principle of genetic mutations and _________.

evolutionary

The ________ model is structured on the premise of "no plan, purpose or design" regarding the development of organisms.

basic kinds of life forms were created by the direct act of God, basic life forms continued to reproduce their own kind within limits of variation

Which statements are correct concerning the creation model ________.

incorporates higher order life forms which parallel each other, only a few simple life forms give rise to new kinds of life which will increase in complexity, all life on earth developed from nonliving matter of natural unknown processes

Which statements are correct concerning the evolution model ____________.

Phyla

All _____ of the animal kingdom are present from the Cambrian period onward.

divisions

Most ________ of plant life are represented in the fossil record from the Triassic period onward.

conform

The biblical concepts concerning creation _______ to established scientific laws.

documented exceptions

The principle "Each Kind Shall Produce After Its Own Kind" is a biblical biological statement that is true with no _________.

Natural

A family tree shows relationships and is, therefore, a good example of a _______ system of classification.

known laws of genetics, observation throughout human history

Organisms are limited to reproducing only after their own kind by _______.

False

True/False: There is observable change from each kind of organism into some other kind.

Biases

Anyone interpreting information will be limited from being completely objective by his or her ____.

Latin

The language used most commonly in scientific writing is _____.

organizing and classifying

Taxonomy is the science of _____.

two-name calling

The best choice for explaining the meaning of binomial nomenclature is _____.

a forest of unique trees

A diagram showing limited variations of life developing from the creation model would appear as ________.

a tree of diverse leaves or branches

A diagram showing unlimited variations and speciation of life developing from evolution would appear as ____.

artificial

Classifying by using flower color, leaf shape, and leaf arrangement are examples of a(n) _____ system of classification.

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