The Creation Story, Genesis 1:1-2:3
God created the world in seven days. Day 1- light, Day 2- sky, Day 3- land and seas, Day 4- sun, moon, stars, Day 5- creatures of sea and sky, Day 6- animals, Adam, Eve, Day 7- rest
The Garden of Eden, Genesis 1-3
Where Adam and Eve lived in peace with all the animals. They could eat from any tree except the Tree of Knowledge, but were tempted by a serpent (original sin). They saw they were naked and God banished them from the Garden of Eden.
The Fall of Man, Genesis
When Adam and Eve lost their innocence in God's eyes. In Christian religion, at this point, all of man lost their innocence, and can now tell good from bad and life from death. Many believe the only way they became able to get into Heaven again was when Jesus Christ sacrificed himself on the cross.
Cain and Abel, Genesis 4:1-4:16
Adam and Eve's sons- after they each made a sacrifice, Cain was jealous that God liked Abel's better, so he killed him. The Lord asked, "Where is your brother?" and Cain answered, "Am I my brother's keeper?" Cain realized what he did and had to live with guilt for the rest of his life.
Noah and the Flood, Genesis 6-9
Because Noah was a righteous man, God commanded him to build an ark so he could save himself, his family, and the animals from the Great Flood God was sending to cleanse the earth. Symbols- olive branch and rainbow = peace
The Tower of Babel, Genesis 11:1-9
Up until this point, everyone had spoken the same language. The people decided to build a tower to the sky so they could reach Heaven. God knew this stairway to Heaven would lead people away from God. He made everyone speak different languages and scattered them all over the world so the tower would not be built.
Abraham and Isaac, Genesis 22
Sarah and Abraham were blessed at very old age with a son named Isaac. God commanded Abraham to take Isaac to Mount Moriah and sacrifice him. When Abraham and Isaac reached the place Isaac was to be sacrificed, God told Abraham to stop and not sacrifice Isaac because he had proved how much he loved God.
Jacob and Esau, Genesis 25:21-34, Genesis 27:1-28:7
Jacob and Esau were Isaac and Rebekah's twin sons. They grew up very different- Esau was the older twin, a hunter, and Jacob was younger and quiet. Esau sold his birthrights to Jacob for a bowl of soup, making God angry. Rebekah convinced Jacob to lie to Abraham and steal Esau's blessings, also making God angry. Esau and Jacob eventually made up. They both became fathers of nations.
Sodom and Gomorrah, Genesis 18:16-19:29
2 cities destroyed by God for being so sinful, especially sexually. Lot and his wife are virtuous and advised to leave the city by God but they couldn't look back.Lot's wife got curios and turned around, and turned into a pillar of salt.
The Tribes of Israel
Jacob's name was changed to Israel by God, and from his two wives were born twelve sons and a daughter.
Joseph and His Coat of Many Colors, Genesis 37
Jacob was quite open about his preference for Joseph, the prophetic dreamer, above all others. Joseph's brothers were jealous, sold Joseph into slavery, covered his coat of many colors with animal blood, which they then showed to Jacob, and ultimately led to the movement of the Hebrews into Egypt.
Moses and the Exodus
Moses's mother saved him by putting him in a basket and sending him down a river at a time when all male babies were to be killed. The Pharaoh's daughter found and raised him an Egyptian prince, but he never forgot he was a Hebrew.
The Burning Bush
One day Moses lost his temper and killed a Hebrew slave. He ran away. God spoke to him through a burning bush and said he had to go back and free the Hebrews from slavery.
The Plagues of Egypt
The Pharaoh wouldn't release the slaves, so God sent 10 plagues. Curses, blood, frogs, lice, flies, pestilence, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, death of firstborn.
The Passover and the Red Sea Passage
With the final plague, Moses had warned the Hebrews to put lamb's blood on their door so the Angel of Death would 'pass over' their house and not kill their firstborn son. Finally the Pharaoh said the slaves could be freed. They left quickly, but their bread did not have time to rise. The Pharaoh changed his mind and sent his army after them. God parted the Red Sea for Moses and his people to escape through.
The Ten Commandments
Moses and his people wanted to find Canaan, the promised land. They had no food or water, but God sent it through Moses. On Mount Sinai, God gave the ten commandments to Moses.
The Promised Land
The land promised to Abraham and his descendants
Old Testament enemies of the Israelites
Samson & Delilah
Samson, the judge of Israel, fell for a Delilah, a girl from the Philistines. The Philistines paid Delilah to trick Samson. Eventually Samson told Delilah his secret- if someone cut off his hair, he'd be powerless. Delilah got someone to cut off his hair while he slept. The Philistines chose to humiliate him instead of killing him, by gouging out his eyes and forcing him to do hard labor. His hair grew by they didn't pay attention. Samson turned to God and prayed for the first time. During a ritual the Philistines gathered in a temple and Samson managed to collapse the temple by pushing between two pillars, killing himself and many of his enemies.
Saul and a servant were sent by his father, Kish, to find his donkeys. Saul was very big and tall. After they had been away for a while and couldn't find the donkeys, they went to see a wise man. Near there was a prophet Samuel who was going to bless a sacrifice. God had told Samuel that he would send a man to be king of Israel. Saul was that man. Samuel took Saul to his feast and the next day he anointed Saul and announced him as king. Saul tried to hide but he was too tall.
David & Goliath
The Philistine and Israel armies were about to fight. A Philistine giant named Goliath scared the whole Israel army. David, a small young teenager, volunteered to fight him. He told Goliath that he had God on his side. When Goliath moved in for the kill, David hit him in the head with a rock from a slingshot.
David & Bathsheba
represents a big sin; from King David's affair with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah. After they had an affair and she became pregnant, David had her husband Uriah put on the front lines of battle so he would die. The "Bathsheba Affair" formed a critical turning point in King David's life. Prior to this, he had prospered greatly, but afterward, his personal fortunes were greatly diminished. Nathan the prophet confronted David after he took Bathsheba for his wife and trapped him into admitting his own guilt.
Absalom at city gates when Israelites appear. Absalom initiates conversation. Tells them that unfortunately David will not hear their good case as he listens to Judean court cases over Israelite cases. States that if her were king, all cases would be heard. Absolom gains a strong support base. David forced to flee all the way to Eastern side of Jordan River. His coup fails, eventually killed by Job.
Solomon and the Temple
When King David died, his son Solomon became king. He prayed to God and asked for wisdom to rule in his father's place, and God answered his prayer. Solomon began to built the temple like God had promised David. It took seven years to build. When it was finished, Solomon gathered God's people and they celebrated for fourteen days. Solomon ruled with fairness.
Passing down a mantle of leadership
Mantle = outer cloak, Elijah's symbol of his God-given authority. When it was time for Elisha to succeed Elijah, he "passed down his mantle of leadership" and was taken up into heaven.
Ahab and Jezebel
A man named Naboth had a vineyard that King Ahab wanted to use as a garden. Naboth said that God forbid him to give his inheritance to the king. Ahab went home and sulked, so his wife Jezebel wrote a letter in his name to the elders of Israel telling them to stone Naboth. When Naboth had died, Ahab took his vineyard. The word of the Lord came to Elijah, telling him to go to Ahab and ask him if he killed Ahab and took his possessions. The Lord also said dogs will eat Jezebel.
Prophesied the birth of Jesus; walked around naked as a sign of if the people didn't stop sinning, God would take away everything they had
Daniel in the Lion's Den
Daniel, a very faithful man, held a high job in the kingdom because he was a good worker, but the princes told the king that he had broken the law because he was jealous. The king ordered Daniel into a lion's den but was so worried he check on him the next morning to see if he was alive. The king was overjoyed when Daniel told him God had sent an angel to protect him. The king had realized the princes had tricked him, so he threw them and their families into the lion's den.
Nebuchadnezzar and the Fiery Furnace
King Nebuchadnezzar had a nine-story high statue of gold that everyone had to worship. During the dedication ceremony, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were noticed not bowing down, and the king was notified. He threw them into a fiery furnace, but God delivered them from harm.
The handwriting on the wall
Foreshadowing doom or misfortune; originates in the book of Daniel, when supernatural writing foretells the demise of the Babylonian Empire
The Nativity of Jesus
Conception is foretold to Mary, birth in a stable, shepherds worship the savior, the magi bring gifts
John the Baptist
Jesus's cousin (born of Elizabeth at old age), a messenger sent to prepare the way; baptized Jesus and pointed to him as the Messiah; preached repentance
Herod, Herodias, and Salome
Salome was the daughter of Herodias and stepdaughter of Herod, ruler of Galilee in Palestine. John the Baptist had condemned the marriage of Herodias and Herod, as Herodias was the divorced wife of Herod's half brother Philip. Angered, Herod imprisoned John, but feared to have the well-known prophet killed. Herodias was not scared and asked Salome to "seduce" her father with a dance so she could get whatever she wanted. She asked for John's head on a platter. Unwillingly, Herod did her bidding, and Salome brought the platter to her mother.
Jesus's followers; students who learned from a teacher vs. Jesus's apostles who were messengers sent forth to spread the Gospel after his Resurrection
Apostle Peter (Simon)
Fisherman; given a name meaning "rock"; preached to the masses in Jerusalem on the day of the Pentecost; healed a man by saying "Silver and gold I do not have, but what I have I give to you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk."; called a "pillar" of the Church; crucified upside in Rome
Brother of James; fisherman; last of the apostles to die, and only that died peacefully; Mary the mother of Jesus lived with him for a few years; when exiled to Apocalypse, that text was given to him by Jesus; when an old man his disciples would carry him to church meetings where he would say little more than "Little children, love one another!"
Used to mean a "skeptic"; based on when he doubted Jesus' resurrection and demanded to feel Jesus' wounds before being convinced, and after that happened he professed his faith in Jesus
The Wedding at Cana
First miracle performed by Jesus in Gospel of John; Jesus and his disciples are invited to a wedding and when the wine runs out Jesus turns water into wine
Walking on Water
Jesus sent the disciples in a boat, ahead of him, to Bethsaida, but when they were half way across the Sea of Galilee, Jesus walked over the lake water and met them. The disciples were frightened at first, thinking they were seeing a ghost, but when Jesus revealed himself and climbed into the boat, they were reassured. Peter also walked out onto the water towards Jesus, but when Peter saw the wind and the waves, he became afraid and began to sink, and Jesus rescued him
Calming the Sea
One evening Jesus and his disciples were crossing the Sea of Galilee when a furious storm broke out, with waves breaking over the boat. Jesus was sleeping and the disciples woke him, saying, "Don't you care if we drown?" He got up and told the storm to calm, and it did. He said, "Why are you so afraid? Don't you have faith?" The disciples were scared and said, "Who is this? Even the wind and waves obey him."
The Loaves and the Fishes
"Feeding the Multitude"; Feeding of 5000- five loaves and two fish feed 5000 when crowds follow Jesus to a remote place after John the Baptist is killed; Feeding of 4000- seven loaves and fish feed a crowd
The sisters of Lazarus, Mary and Martha, inform Jesus that Lazarus is ill. Jesus delays his journey for a couple days and by the time he gets there Lazarus is already dead. Martha tells Jesus if he had come earlier her brother wouldn't have died, but Jesus told her to believe. Then, they went to his tomb and he said "Lazarus, come out!" and Lazarus came out.
The Sermon on the Mount
Jesus' description of Christian living found in Matthew's Gospel given on a mountain to his disciples and others; includes The Beatitudes (eight blessings)
Parable of the Lost Sheep
A shepherd left 99 sheep to find one lost sheep. God's love is like that of the shepherd's, seemingly foolish in human terms in its pursuit of the one who has lost his or her way.
Name means "separated ones"; the most bitter, and deadly, opponents of Jesus Christ and His message
The Last Supper- bread and wine
The final meal that Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion; during the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the disciples present, and foretells that Peter will deny knowing him later that day; provides scriptural base for communion; bread- body, wine- blood
Betrayal and Denial
Judas betrayed Jesus to the soldiers by giving him a kiss on the cheek for thirty pieces of silver; Peter denied knowing Jesus three times- both were foretold by Jesus himself
Pontius Pilate- hand washing
The phrase "washing one's hands of" something, means declaring one's unwillingness to take responsibility for the thing. Matthew 27:24 gives an account of Pontius Pilate washing his hands of the decision to crucify Jesus.
Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension
Jesus was crucified on a cross, was resurrected from the dead, and ascended into heaven to be with God- the three phases that turned him into a god
Persecuted Christians; Jesus appeared to him saying "Saul! Saul! Why do you persecute me?" and the light was so bright that it blinded him for three days, and Jesus had a follower restore his sight and Saul was told he would be Jesus's witness to what he had seen and heard. He got up, and was baptized.
The Road to Damascus
Saul's conversion to Paul the Apostle
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Four figures in the book of Revelation who symbolize the evils to come at the end of the world. Conquest rides a white hors; war rides a red horse; famine rides a black horse; and plague rides a white horse.
A leader who fulfills Biblical prophecies concerning an adversary of Christ, while resembling him in a deceptive manner. The antichrist will seemingly provide for the needs of the people but deny them ultimate salvation.
Number of the Beast
666; the beast who comes from "out of the sea" as seen in apocalyptic visions by John the Apostle in the New Testament; aligned with The Dragon and The False Prophet; all three who can project demons into the world in order to gather kings for Armageddon
The Lake of Fire
A place of after-death punishment for the wicked
The Whore of Babylon
Christian allegorical figure of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible; connected to the Beast and the Antichrist; dressed in purple and scarlet
The New Jerusalem
A city that is or will be the dwelling place of the saints; also known as the City of God
"Father of Gods and Men" He ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus. He is the god of sky and thunder.
She is the goddess of women and marriage. cow, and later, The peacock were sacred to her. She is known for her jealous and vengeful nature
Son of Zeus. He was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes. His symbols are a smith's hammer, an anvil and a pair of tongs.
Messenger of the gods. God of commerce, thieves, travelers, sports, and border crossings. His symbols include the tortoise, the rooster, the winged sandals, the winged hat
God of the underworld. Brother of Zeus.
God of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; medicine, healing, and plague; music, poetry, and the arts. Depicted with a lyre and a python.
Goddess of wisdom, warfare and crafts. The Athenians built the Parthenon in her honor.
Goddess of the Hunt, Forests and Hills, the Moon. She is depicted with a bow and arrows
God of War and Bloodshed
The God of the Sea
Goddess of the Earth, Agriculture, Harvest, and Forests. Zeus' sister.
Goddess of the Hearth (brickstone fireplace). She received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household
Goddess of Love, Beauty and Sexuality. Because of her beauty other gods feared that jealousy would interrupt the peace among them and lead to war, and so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who was not viewed as a threat.
The Queen of the Underworld. Becomes partners with Hades
Was a hunter from the territory of Thespiae in Boeotia who was renowned for his beauty. As divine punishment he fell in love with his own reflection in a pool. (Narcissism-egotistic, selfish)
She loved her own voice. She would distract and amuse Hera with long and entertaining stories. She was punished by having her voice taken away. She can only repeat the voice of another.
A great mortal weaver who boasted that her skill was greater than that of Minerva. Minerva turned her into a spider because she was jealous.
The ancient Greek god of the grape harvest and winemaking. The driving force behind Greek theater. The god who inspires joyful worship and ecstasy
Goddess of The Soul. So beautiful that Venus had her son Cupid make her fall in love with someone unsuitable. Cupid falls in love with her. Then Venus puts a curse on her that she cant fall in love or marry again.
The god of desire and affection. Son of Venus. The icon of Valentines Day
The daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis. The wife to the hero Jason. She gets revenge on him when he picks a different wife.
"cunning worker" A skillful craftsman and artisan who created the minotaur and gave his son wings.
The son of the master craftsman Daedalus. His father gave him wings. He ignored instructions not to fly too close to the sun, and fell to his death
A woman of high lineage, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken. She was abducted by Zeus in the form of a white bull.
The priestess of Hera. She was changed into a young cow. She was loosed to roam the world, stung by a maddening horsefly
A nation of all-female warriors
A minor goddess of magic who livied on the island of Aeaea, famous for her part in the adventures of Odysseus. Turned Odysseus into a pig.
God of Shepherds, Flocks, Goats, and of Mountain Wilds. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat.
"Midas touch", the power to transmute whatever he touched into gold.
A divine hero and son of Zeus. The greatest of the Greek heroes
The son of King Atreus of Mycenae. Upon his return from Troy he was murdered.
A legendary king of Mycenaean. A hero of the Trojan War
A daughter of the accidentally incestuous marriage between King Oedipus of Thebes and his mother Jocasta. She attempts to secure a respectable burial for her brother Polyneices
The daughter of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy. Her beauty caused Apollo to grant her the gift of prophecy.
He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother (Jocasta).
Gave birth to Oedipus who was abandoned and killed his father and married her.
The Greek god of the west wind.
Falls in love with Thisbe through a crack in the wall. They agree to meet but Thisbe runs away when she sees a lion. Pyramis believes she is dead when she sees the veil on the floor and then he kills himself. Thisbe follows suit short after.
Falls in love with Pyramis through a crack in the wall. They agree to meet but she runs away when she sees a lion. Pyramis believes she is dead when she sees the veil on the floor and then he kills himself. She sees this and follows suit.
A blind prophet of Thebes. Famous for being transformed into a woman for seven years
The king of Troy during the Trojan War. He had many wives.
A river which formed a boundary between earth and the underworld. It circles the Underworld nine times.
Famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
The gigantic one-eyed son of Poseidon. Homer's The Odyssey
The guardian of Io when in cow form. A giant with 100 eyes.
A daughter of Agamemnon. Agamemnon must sacrifice Iphigenia to Artemis in order for the winds to allow him to sail to Troy.
"To give what is due" The spirit of divine retribution against those who were arrogant before the gods.
A champion of mankind, known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals. Zeus then punished him for his crime by having him bound to a rock while a great eagle ate his liver every day only to have it grow back to be eaten again the next day
The brother of Prometheus. Prometheus is smart, he is foolish. They were titans who "acted as representatives of mankind".
The first woman. Each god helped create her by giving her unique gifts.
A member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the middle of its forehead.
A 3 headed dog which guards the gates of Hades.
Part human and part horse.
Head of a bull on the body of a man.
The mythical founder-king of Athens. Traveled to Athens through the 6 gateways of Hades.
A legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. He is most famous for the ten eventful years he took to return home after the ten-year Trojan War and his famous Trojan Horse trick.
The fleece of the gold-haired winged ram. Jason and his band of Argonauts must get the fleece in order for Jason to be king.
A band of heroes who joined with Jason to search for the Golden Fleece.
Son of Priam, king of Troy. Probably the best-known was his elopement with Helen, queen of Sparta. This caused the Trojan War.
The ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased to the Underworld.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established the concept of judicial review.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in private businesses (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954)
This decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation. This decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
Gitlow v. New York (1927)
This ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain provisions of the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
Certain "well‐defined and narrowly limited" categories of speech fall outside the bounds of constitutional protection. Thus, "the lewd and obscene, the profane, the libelous," and (in this case) insulting or "fighting" words neither contributed to the expression of ideas nor possessed any "social value" in the search for truth
Miller v. California (1973)
This decision reiterated that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment and established a test for determining what constituted obscene material.
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997)
This voted to strike down anti-indecency provisions of the Communications Decency Act (the CDA), finding they violated the freedom of speech provisions of the First Amendment. This was the first major Supreme Court ruling regarding the regulation of materials distributed via Internet.
Schenck v. United States (1919)
This decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to freedom of speech against the draft during World War I. Ultimately, the case established the "clear and present danger" test.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
This determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Determined that for a law to be considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, the law must have a legitimate secular purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an excessive entanglement of government and religion.
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)
It ruled that a policy permitting student-led, student-initiated prayer at high school football games violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
The United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Ruled that the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney.
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969)
The First Amendment, as applied through the Fourteenth, did not permit a public school to punish a student for wearing a black armband as an anti-war protest, absent any evidence that the rule was necessary to avoid substantial interference with school discipline or the rights of others.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)
Busing students to promote integration is constitutional.
Rostker v. Goldberg (1981)
This decision holds that the practice of requiring only men to register for the draft was constitutional.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
The Court decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests for regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting the mother's health.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
Upheld a Missouri law that imposed restrictions on the use of state funds, facilities and employees in performing, assisting with, or counseling on abortions.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
A Pennsylvania law that required spousal notification prior to obtaining an abortion was invalid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it created an undue burden on married women seeking an abortion. Requirements for parental consent, informed consent, and 24-hour waiting period were constitutionally valid regulations.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)
A private organization is allowed, under certain criteria, to exclude a person from membership through their First Amendment right to freedom of association in spite of state antidiscrimination laws.
A huge or heroic task is said to Herculean. This is in tribute to the Greek mythological hero Hercules and his Labors.
In another figure of speech from Greek mythology, a Sisyphean task is one that requires continual effort that never quite pays off. This is named for Sisyphus, who paid eternally for his crimes by rolling a boulder uphill. Every time it reached the top, it rolled back down again and Sisyphus was compelled to start anew.
It's because of a mythological sinner named Tantalus that to tantalize entails holding something desireable just out of reach. Like Sisyphus, Tantalus was sent to the Underworld's region of eternal punishment, where he stood in a pool of water under boughs laden with fruit yet could satisfy neither hunger nor thirst.
The Midas touch, or the gift of profiting from whatever one undertakes, is named for a legendary king of Phrygia. Midas was granted the power to transmute whatever he touched into gold.
A book of maps gets its name from Atlas, the Titan who supported the heavens on his shoulders.
Something colossal in size or power (such as a supposedly unsinkable ocean liner) is said to be titanic. This adjective comes from the Titans, the gargantuan firstborn sons of the goddess Earth.
Here's one you probably don't use in everyday conversation, but it turns up in the newspaper with surprising frequency. It's a Procrustean effort that forces evidence into a theory when it doesn't fit, just as Procrustes violently adjusted his guests to fit their bed.
Stygian can mean infernal, gloomy or characteristic of death, since it comes from the river Styx in the Underworld of the Dead.
The word Promethean describes a daringly creative or defiantly original act, because of the Titan Prometheus, who defied the wrath of the gods in order to benefit humankind. (The full title of Mary Shelley's famous novel is "Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus".)
A point of vulnerability is an Achilles' heel, because the mythological warrior Achilles had been magically protected in all but that part of his body.
Here's a word you may have used before without realizing your debt to Greek mythology. The word panic comes from the goat-god Pan.
Policies regarding Native Americans (1860-80)
- reservations - Native Americans depended on US (for food, clothes, etc)
- assimilation (Christianity, English, school, men farm, etc)
- civilize them
- make them white
Government's response to big business of the late 1800s
- pools --> business consolidation
- trusts --> monopolies
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act --> no trusts (not effective)
Holden v. Hardy
- court upheld law to limit miner working hours
- dangerous job
Lochner v. New York
- court struck down law limiting bakers' hours
- not a dangerous job
Muller v. Oregon
- court limited working hours for women working in laundry shop
- dangerous to reproductive health
- result --> limit jobs that women can have
- direct election of senators
- previously elected by state legislature
- party bosses are still able to control elections
- women's movement started it (keep morals in society)
- Teddy Roosevelt
- government should regulate economic activity - won't destroy big business
- break up monopolies but don't restore laissez-faire - enhance government authority to protect and regulate
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
- created Federal Trade Commission (investigate companies for unfair trade practices)
- prevent corporate -corrected problems with Sherman Anti-Trust Actabuses by expanding government's regulatory powers
- outlawed monopolies
- use of private funds to serve US economic goals
- gained profit for US finances
- tie money to whatever you want done
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
- Latin American countries need to stabilize policies and finances
- if they continued to be bad, US would have to intervene - US is the superior and civilized nation - Monroe --> tells Europe to stay out of US stuff
Espionage and Sedition Acts
- don't say anything against the draft, the government, or the military
- banned treasonous mail
- no spying
Schenck v US
- upheld Espionage Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional
Abrams v US
- upheld Sedition Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional
Wilson's Fourteen Points
- diplomacy, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, reductions in armaments, decolonization, evacuate troops from Europe, self-determinate *League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference
- Versailles - Big 4 (not 5 yet)
- Germany will pay reparations for WWI
- blame Germany for war
League of Nations
- 5 member nations
- elected delegates from smaller countries
Treaty of Versailles
- didn't mention some of Wilson's 14 Points
- lots of people in the US didn't like it
- Lodge Reservations --> don't want League of Nations because Europe could interfere in US affairs
National Origins Act
- apportioned new quotas for European countries
- a set amount from each country could immigrate
- limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
- designed to make loans to banks, insurance companies and railroads
- lent lots of money to people at the top of the system (trickle down)
- didn't work
- raised duties by 1/3
- weakened economy more (rather than reversing the recession)
- made it harder for other countries to sell products and earn money to pay back debts to US and buy from US)
Economics of Scarcity
- combat depression
- restore purchasing power to farmers, blue-collar workers, and middle class
- cut production (prices would rise)
- producers would make more profit and workers would earn more
Tennessee Valley Authority
- economy > environment
- dams would control food and generate hydroelectric power
- enhance economy
- caused pollution, but achieved goals
Social Security Act
- force Americans to save money
- workers who paid Social Security taxes would get retirement benefits at age 65
- created some welfare programs
Dawes Plan of 1924
- reduced Germany's annual war payments
- provided more loans to Germany
- German debt was eventually cut in half
Good Neighbor Policy
- US would be less blatant in its dominion of Latin America
- economic control, not military
- nicer domination
Policy of Appeasement
- overlook Hitler's small crimes
- allow him to take smaller territories
The Munich Conference
- Hitler took Austria and Czechoslovakia
- Britain and France let Hitler get away with it
- thought Hitler was done taking countries
- response to Japanese in Manchuria
- moral lecture (we can't do anything else)
- US wouldn't recognize any impairment in China's sovereignty or Open Door
The Europe First Formula
- beat Germany, then go to Japan
- don't want Britain to lose war
- US is worried about Germans making the atomic bomb
- if Germany won the war, US would be threatened more
- Stalin, Churchill, and FDR met to reconcile (we left Soviets out of Italian surrender)
- FDR finally said he'd start the second front
- decided on Operation Overlord (for D-Day)
The Manhattan Project
- secret program for atomic bomb
- test bomb in New Mexico desert
Hirabayashi and Korematsu Cases
- upheld Japanese internment policies
Executive Order No. 8802
- required employers in defense industries to make jobs available without discrimination
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
- US, Britain, Chinese, and Soviet representative
- supreme security council
- 5 permanent members (France is the 5th)
- Britain wanted to make France a partner in postwar occupation of Germany
- Soviets want Germany to pay for the war
- US wanted UN
- US agrees with Britain, but we need Soviets to help us in the Pacific
- new German policies
- complete disarmament
- dismantle industry used for military
- no more Nazism
- war crimes trials
- unpopular with workers
- no closed shop
- union workers had to swear they weren't communists
- Congress approved it over Truman's veto
- conservative in money and liberal with people
Highway Act of 1956
- national defense
- approved funds for interstate highway system
- facilitate commerce and enable military to move around US more easily
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
- separate but equal is not equal
- didn't call for integration until second Brown v Board
- integrate with all deliberate speed
- support free peoples who are resisting subjugation
Mr. X Article
- anticommunism speech
- contain communism
- achieve US goals in Europe
- foreign aid to Europe
- money given must be spent on American-made products
- keep countries stable so they'll stay trading partners
- caused inflation and didn't solve the problem
- US would interne in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help
- end racial discrimination
- medical care for elderly
- stop recession
- war on poverty
- civil rights
- accomplish JFK's goals
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- no discrimination on color, race, religion, sex, or national origin - applied to public accommodations and employment
- government could withhold funds from public agencies that discriminated
Principle of Flexible Response
- JFK - policy for Soviet Union and 3rd World Countries
- US would respond with whatever means necessary in a given situation
Strategic Hamlet Program
- isolate peasants from Vietcong (southern rebels) - put them in compounds
- alienated villagers
- meant to avoid killing our allies
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
- president can take all necessary measures to rebel armed attacks against US and prevent further aggression
- US would help nations that helped themselves - build up Vietnamese forces to replace US forces
- first part of Nixon-Kissinger Grand Strategy - negotiate with Soviets
- check Soviet expansion
- limit Soviet arms buildup
- The US would intervene unilaterally and militarily) should Soviet aggression threaten the Persian Gulf
- cut domestic programs (food stamps, welfare, school meals, etc) - tax cuts for corporations
-widened class gap
- supply-side--> give business more money so they'll invest in business (creates jobs for lower class)
The Scopes Trial
- it's illegal to teach evolution in schools (fundamentalism) - teacher volunteered to serve in a test case
- arrested for violating law and convicted
- modernists claimed victory (trial showed flaws in fundamentalism)
- repealed prohibition
atoms are the smallest particles in nature(indevisable), atoms in all of nature, thought of fate
discourse: asking questions to get the truth, "know thyself"
world of ideas, myth of the cave
founded science of logic, categorized nature
man is a sinner saved through redemption
christianized Plato's theories
christianized Aristotle's theories
reformer of the church from without, salvation free gift not by works
reformer of the church from within- a monk
everything including the soul is tangible and made of atoms
father of modern philosophy, rationalist, "I think therefore I am"
god is in creation and nature is god
all our thoughts and ideas come from our senses
the law of causation- complex ideas
we exist only in God's mind
we rely on both reason and senses
believed in" world spirit"
founded exticentialism- truth is relevant to the individual
material forces shape history, conflict between capitalists and workers
put a bridge between group and individual returned focus to nature through natural selection and evolution
psychoanalysis- your sub-contious affects your actions
existentialist- atheist, existence starts with humans
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Alice Stone Blackwell
helped merge of the American and National Women's Association in 1917
Harriet Stanton Blatch
headed the Food Aministration Speaker's Bureau, The daughter of suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton who headed the Food Administration's Speakers' Bureau.
Alice Paul's partner, campaigned for 19th amendment' a fierce activist for women's rights in the United States as well as in the U.K., very good friends with Alice Paul with whom she founded the National Women's Party; (most of the stuff we saw in the movie was true: imprisonment, attending Oxford University (amongst other schools: Vassar, Columbia, Yale))
Claire Chapman Catt
When Susan B. Anthony retired from NAWSA in 1900, she chose Catt to take her place.
She led the Suffrage Parade in Washington, DC, draped in white robes and riding a huge white horse. In 1916, she went on a tour in the West, speaking for suffrage, despite suffering from pernicious anemia. Her last public words were, "Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?."
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
United States feminist (1885-1977), head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking;, Marched with the suffragist in England , was jailed and went on a hunger strike all to help British woman win the vote. returned home to support the cause of the suffrage for American woman
Anna Howard Shaw
Along with Carrie Chapman Catt, they led the National American Suffrage Association which grew from 13,000 members in 1893 to over 2 million in 1917., she led the women's suffrage movement in the United States, as well as a physician, and the first ordained Methodist minister in the United States; she was born in England
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
formed American Women's suffrage movement, School teacher, daughter of a farmer, became abolitionist, lecturer for Anti-Slavery Society, good at giving speeches, disagreed with Susan Anthony, did not want to separate the women's rights movement from the aboltionist/civil rights movement.
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women., United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
Right Government Parties
Left Government Parties
-Law of the Jungle-Survival of the Fittest
-Looks to the Past
-Looks to the Future
Goal: Economic Freedom
Trade: Free Trade
Trade: Fair Trade
- Business & industry = Don't Tax and Spend
-Business & industry = Tax and Spend
Right vs Left Interference
Right: No interference of society and social lives
Left: Interfere with social lives and society
Right Vs Left Social Progress
Right: Status Quo
Right Society and Culture
- Preservation "the world is fine as it is"
-Exclusive Nationalist Conservative
-Community based on Morals
Left Society and Culture
-Utopianism "the world can be improved"
-Inclusive Multicultural Evolving
-Community based on Ethics
Religion: Theistic, Organized, Conventional
Rights: Others must Not Interfere
Criminals: Choose to be criminals
Homeless:No Work Ethnic, No sense of Shame
Society: "Survival of the Fittest"
-Equality is Opportunity
-Freedom is the chance to achieve or fail
Religion:Scientific, Non-organized, Unconventional
Rights: Others must Observe
Criminals: social and economic Victims
Society: "One for All and All for One"
Homeless: Downtrodden, Victims of the System
Equality is a Level Playing Field
Freedom is freedom from Power, Abuse, and Inequality
-Gay rights 44%
-Abortion rights 43%
-Tax cuts 84%
-Same-sex marriage 12%
-Unmarried sex 80%
-Gay rights 54%
-Abortion rights 66%
-Tax cuts 24%
-Same-sex marriage 43%
-Unmarried sex 90%
Right Support Votes For...
-Helping those who help themselves
-Champions of Opportunity
Left Support Votes For...
-Helping those who Cannot help themselves
-Champions of Downtrodden