________ is another word for vomiting.
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Which of the following processes occurs only in the large intestine?
The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
The_________ is the last segment of the small intestine.
Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
chief cells of the stomach
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
The pancreas secretes:
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
Select the correct statement about absorption.
If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?
The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.
The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.
The _______ circulation includes all of the arteries that serve the digestive organs.
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?
production of digestive enzymes
The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.
Chyme is created in the ________.
The _______ guards the entry of food into the stomach.
The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.
Which of the following is considered to be an accessory organ of the digestive system?
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body.
The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.
Some of the microbes that often invade other organs of the body are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl.
The stomach's contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord.
The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
Hepatocytes do not ________.
produce digestive enzymes
The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
inferior vena cava
Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
serous cells and mucous cells
Which of the following is not a structural modification of the small intestine to increase surface area?
The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver.
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
Which is mismatched?
Protease: lipid digestion