_____play an important role in cell division and they are made of microtubules
Ligand-gated channels are membrane proteins that open or close in reponse to the binding of chemicals - t or f
The solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B
Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a nonpermeating solute than solution B, then:
A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of normal saline. Normal saline is _______to your blood cells and is about _______NaCi.
Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are _____, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are _____.
Filtration; hydrostatic pressure
___________is the process in which ________forces water and small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells.
In the plasma membrane, glycolipids and glycoproteins face toward the cytoplasm, while peripheral proteins always face toward the ECF.
Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are HYDROPHOBIC, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are HYDROPHILIC
Centrioles play an important role in cell division, and they are made of microtubules
cases of carrier mediated transport
Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both are cases of carrier-mediated transport.
Cells lining the small intestines are specialized for absoption of nutrients. their plasma membrane has MICROVILLI
Insulin is taken up by endocytosis by endothelial cells lining capillaries, and then transported across the cell to the other side where it is released. This transport is called TRANSCYTOSIS
The Golgi complex; rough ER
THE GOLGI COMPLEX synthesize (s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at ROUGH ER
Pumps consume ATP when transferring solutes fro one side to the other side of the plasma membrane.
Volume and surface relationship
What limits how large a cell can be? Most human cells range from 10 to 15 micrometers in diameter
Flagella; cilia; microvilli
Flagella provide motility to a cell, cilia act as sensory "antnna" in many cells, and microvilli increase the cells surface area
Gates respond to all these stimuli fluid except WATER IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
Gates do respond to
Physical deformations of the plasma membrane
changes in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane
Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell
OSMOLARITY describes the number of particles of a solute in solution, whereas TONICITY is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell
higher - shrink
A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of the solutes in the solution is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to SHRINK
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Among other functions, hepatocytes (liver cells) are specialized in detoxifying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
TEM PRODUCES HIGHER RESOLUTIONS
Although the transmission electron microscope (TEM) can magnify more than a light microscope, even at identical magnifications the TEM has the advantage of PRODUCING HIGHER RESOLUTION
muscle = mitochondria
Muscle cells contain numerous MITOCHONDRIA to serve their high demand for ATP.
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits SPECIFICITY
Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier is a SYMPORT and the process is called COTRANSPORT
Transport of Na+ from a place of low concentration to a place of higher concentration
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
organelle that synthesizes steroids in the ovary and stores calcium in muscle cells
The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT) is one example of an active transport process involving a uniport carrier
kinases adds phospate groups to regulate other enzymes
In its second-messenger role, cAMP activates enzymes called KINASES, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phospate groups to them
Fusiform cells - thick middle tapered ends
FUSIFORM cells are thick in the middle and tapered toward the end.
Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called OSMOSIS, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called aquaporins
The most important advantage of transmission electron microscopes (TEM) over light microscopes (LM) is its higher resolution
UP ; ACTIVE TRANSPORT
The sodium-potassium (Na+-K) pump transports both sodium and potassium UP their concentration gradients in a process called ACTIVE TRANSPORT
One example of pinocytosis is the uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDL'S) by endothelial cells FALSE
GLYCOPROTEINS - id tags
GLYCOPROTEINS act like identification tags in the glycocalyx that enable the body ot distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells