Ch 1 Intro

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5 properties of life

responsiveness
growth
movement
metabolism
reproduction

anatomy

describes structures of body;
composition (what they're made of), location, associated structures

gross anatomy

examines large structures;
aka macroscopic anatomy

surface anatomy

exterior anatomical features

regional anatomy

study of body areas

systemic anatomy

study of organs working together

microscopic anatomy

study of cells and molecules

cytology

study of cells and their structures

histology

study of tissues and their structures

physiology

study of function

levels of organization

chemical → ceullular → tissue → organ → organ system → organism

11 organ systems

integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, pulmonary (respiratory), digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems

cell

basic unit of life

tissue

group of similar cells performing a similar function

organ

groups of different tissues working together to perform a specific function

organ system

groups of organs working together to perform a specific function

integumentary system

Skin, hair, and nails; covers and protects the body and maintains body temperature

skeletal system

provide protection and support;
bones & cartilage

muscular system

moves and heats body;
muscles & tendons

nervous system

provides speedy communcation signaling within body, sensation (sensory info.), interpretation (consciousness), memory, and movement commands;
brain & spinal cord comprise the Central Nervous System (CNS);
nerves and receptors comprise the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

endocrine system

secretes hormones that help control body activities such as growth and reproduction

hormones

long-lasting and widespreading chemical signals in blood;
eg, thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands

lymphatic system

defends the body from pathogens;
eg thymus, spleen, lymph nodes

pathogen

disease-causing agent (eg, cancer cell, bacteria, virus, fungus, insects, venom)

respiratory system

gas exchange and air movement;
eg, lungs, bronchi, trachea

digestive system

ingests (take in), digests (break down), absorbs (nutrients through cells into blood), excretes waste out of body;
eg, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas

urinary system

filters blood and excretes wastes in urine;
eg, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

reproductive system

produces offspring and sex hormones & sexual characteristics;
eg, ovaries, uterus, vagina, testes, prostate gland

homeostasis

maintenance of equilibrium within a normal range;
"same state";
usually through a negative-feedback mechanism

negative-feedback mechanism

process by which an effector negates/counteracts a stimulus;
returns body to "normal range" (eg body temp);
includes receptor, control center, and effector

receptor

neural detector for a given stimulus (eg, light, pressure, damage)

control center

neuron(s) that process signal and sends instructions to effector;
found in brain or spinal cord

effector

tissue that causes an effect
(eg, muscle that contracts to remove hand from stove

positive-feedback mechanism

response of effector increases change of the stimulus—speeds up processes;
no "normal range" of stimulus;
eg, labor contractions and blood clotting

abdominopelvic quadrants

RUQ - contains the liver and gall bladder;
RLQ - contains the appendix;
LUQ - contains the stomach, spleen;
LLQ - contains the descending colon, rectum

9 abdominopelvic regions

R. hypochondriac — Epigastric — L. hypochondriac;
R. lumbar — Umbilical — L. lumbar;
R. inguinal — Hypogastric — L. inguinal

anatomical position

body standing erect, facing forward, with upper limbs at sides and palms forward; always imagine patient in this position for correct directional term use

superior

above

inferior

below

anterior

towards the front; aka ventral

ventral

towards the front; aka anterior

posterior

towards the back; aka dorsal

dorsal

towards the back; aka posterior

proximal

closer to attachment point on the trunk of body

distal

further from attachment point on the trunk of body

lateral

away from midline

medial

toward midline

peripheral

away from center

plane

imaginary cut that divides the body through the center

section

any slice parallel to a plane

transverse plane

plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka horizontal plane

horizontal plane

plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka transverse plane

frontal plane

vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka coronal plane

coronal plane

vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka frontal plane

midsagittal plane

vertical plane through midline of body from head to pelvic floor; cuts body into equal left and right parts

cavity

space within body containing internal organs

dorsal cavity

1 of 2 major body cavities; contains cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)

ventral cavity

1 of 2 major body cavities; contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

thoracic cavity

superior portion of ventral cavity superior to diaphragm; contains pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum

pleural cavities

cavities within thoracic cavity containing lungs

pericardial cavity

cavity within thoracic cavity contains heart

abdominopelvic cavity

inferior portion cavity below diaphragm; contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic

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