Earth Science Brain Honey Final Study

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Earth Science 2 Brain Honey

Core

central region where nuclear reactions consume hydrogen to form helium.

Radiative Zone

energy generated in the core is carried by light (photons) that bounces from particle to particle through this zone.

Sunspots

dark areas on the surface of the Sun. Temperatures here drop to about 3700 K (compared to 5700 K for the surrounding photosphere).

Photosphere

the visible surface of the Sun that we are most familiar with.

Chromosphere

an irregular layer above the photosphere where the temperature rises from 6000° C to about 20,000° C.

Corona

the Sun's outer atmosphere. It displays a variety of features including streamers, plumes, and loops and is visible during total eclipses of the Sun as a pearly white crown surrounding the Sun.

Flares

tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT.

Prominence

a dense cloud of material suspended above the surface of the Sun by loops of magnetic field.

According to the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram, what is the luminosity of the Sun?

1
2
3
4

1

What is the Sun's absolute magnitude?

+1
-4.83
+4.83
-1

+4.83

Main sequence stars are those that have fairly uniform composition and are fueled by the fusion of ___________ to form energy, given off as light and __________.

helium, hydrogen
hydrogen, helium
oxygen, hydrogen
oxygen, carbon monoxide

hydrogen, helium

What is the main factor that influences how long a star burns?

The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans.
The mass of the star. Larger stars have longer lifespans.
How close the star is to other stars.
How close the star is to a black hole.

The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans.

About how fast are solar winds travelling when they pass Earth?

100 mph
1,000 mph
1,000,000 mph
1 mph

1,000,000 mph

Which of the following is NOT found in the Milky Way galaxy's galactic halo?

a few lone stars
dark matter
some star clusters
the Sun

the Sun

Which of the following is the correct order of the components of the Milky Way galaxy, from outermost to innermost?

thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, galactic halo, black hole
thin disk, extreme disk, thick disk, galactic halo, black hole
galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole
extreme disk, thick disk, thin disk, galactic halo, black hole

galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole

In what part of the Milky Way is our solar system located?

thick disk
thin disk
extreme disk
galactic halo

thin disk

What evidence do scientists have that lead them to believe there is a black hole at the center of the Milky Way?

They have directly measured the gravity of the black hole.
They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.
They have observed comets and asteroids disappearing into the area.
They have sent a probe into the area and it did not return.

They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.

About how much of the mass of the Milky Way has yet to be discovered by scientists?

95%
70%
20%
5%

95%

What galaxy is rushing towards the Milky Way from 2.5 million light years away and will eventually merge with it?

Sagittarius dwarf
Small Magellanic cloud
Nostromo
Andromeda

Andromeda

Earth is located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way.

True
False

True

The Milky Way's central bulge is located in the middle of the galaxy and is mainly a birth place for new stars.

True
False

False

Red stars are old, cool stars.

True
False

True

The spiral arms of the Milky Way contain mostly blue stars, gas and dust.

True
False

True

Explain why we see comets, like Haley's comet, only periodically, usually with many years in between sightings. In your explanation discuss the orbit of the comet.

Comets orbit the sun like planets. Comets have what is called an exaggerated elliptical orbit, a very long oval shape. We see the comet only when it is in the part of its orbit nearest the sun. The rest of the time it is out in the outer reaches of the solar system.

Comets have tails throughout their entire orbit around the sun.

False

Tails begin to appear as the comet nears the sun. As the energy from the sun heats up the comet it begins to "melt" and the melted gases and/or dust particles become the tail. As the comet leaves the part of the orbit where the sun's energy affects it, farther away from the sun, the tail will disappear.

The closer two objects are the greater the force of gravity between them

True

In space, we know that the distance between two objects is crucial to the amount of gravitational pull one object has on another. The closer the two objects the greater the amount of gravity

An object the size of the Earth has a gravitational pull. An object the size of Jupiter has a gravitational pull. Which has a greater gravitational pull and why?

Jupiter, because its mass is greater than the mass of Earth. Explanation: Gravity is directly related to the amount of mass present in an object. The greater the mass, the greater the force of gravity exerted by that object. Since Jupiter has more mass, its gravitational pull is greater.

We live in the ___________ galaxy.
Andromeda
Magellanic Cloud
Spider
Milky Way

Milky Way

The Milky Way is classified as which type of galaxy?
Spiral
Elliptical
Irregular
Nebulae

Spiral

Which of the following would best describe the characteristics of our star, the Sun?
Hot blue giant
Average yellow main sequence star
Expanding red giant
White dwarf

Average yellow main sequence star

What two characteristics are used to classify stars?`

luminosity (brightness) and color (temperature)

sunspots

Strong magnetic regions on the surface which appear dark

chromosphere

An irregular layer outside the photosphere where the temperature rises to 20,000 degrees C and a red light is emitted

photosphere

The visible surface of the Sun

core

Where energy producing nuclear reactions take place

corona

The Sun's outer atmosphere visible only during an eclipse

All telescopes use wavelengths in the visible section of the electromagnetic spectrum to create "images" of space.

false

Optical telescopes are designed to collect and create images from
White or visible light
X-rays
Infrared radiation
Ultraviolet radiation

White or visible light

Telescopes that are placed above the atmosphere produce clearer images than those below the atmosphere.

True

The movement of air molecules in the atmosphere interferes with the quality of the images collected by some kinds of telescopes

Which type of telescope was instrumental in detecting the background noise that is believed to be the remnant of the initial big bang event?

Answer: Radio Telescope, Explanation: Radio telescopes are used to "listen" to the noise of space. They were used to discover a diffuse noise that was heard coming from all directions in space. This noise is called background noise and is believed to be the leftover sound from the Big Bang event.

Estimates vary, but the universe is estimated to be about
12 - 15 million years
4.5 billion years
12 - 15 billion years
200 million years

12-15 billion years

Distances in space cannot be judged based only upon the size of an object but must be calculated using the characteristics of light emitted by that object.`

True

An object that is farther away may appear the same size and just as bright as an object near by and therefore we cannot judge distances in space using size or brightness alone.

Quasars, gas clouds, galaxies, and ________________________ are some of the objects in distant space that we study using ground based telescopes and satellites.

Answers may vary: Black holes, stars, star systems,

A pixel, used in analysis of a satellite image, represents an area that is 900 x 900 meters.

False

The pixel actually represents a land area of 30 x 30 meters or 900 square meters.

When the electromagnetic radiation from a star or galaxy, especially those in the visible spectrum, are examined this is the science of
Astronomy
Cosmology
Spectroscopy
Electro-radiationology

Spectroscopy

Which is not explained by the Big Bang theory of the creation of the universe?
Expansion of the universe
Cosmic microwave background radiation
Abundance of helium deuterium and lithium
The origin of galaxies

The origin of galaxies

One of the main principles of the Big Bang theory is that matter is distributed fairly evenly across the universe. Galaxies are an anomaly because they are collections of large amounts of organized matter

In the new universe following the Big Bang, four forces became distinct shortly after the initial event. Which of the forces is responsible for the attraction between particles of matter, coalescing clouds of gases and dust into stars, planets, etc.?

Gravity
Electromagnetism
Strong nuclear forces
Weak nuclear forces

Gravity

There are three basic types of galaxies. Name them and give a brief description of them

1. Spiral, which is disk shaped central portion, with arms radiating from the central disk.
2. Elliptical, which is ball to oval shaped, no arms, globular central portion, old stars.
3. Irregular, which is no regular shape, may have formed from a collision of two galaxies.

Quasars are the most distant objects we have discovered out in space and therefore are the oldest.

True

The more distant an object, the earlier the matter that formed it came out of the blast of the Big Bang. Nearer objects came out of the blast more recently than more distant objects.

Describe a. What remote sensing is. b. What kinds of things it can be used to study.

Remote sensing is basically the use of any instrument that does not touch the object being studied, but when it comes to space exploration, we often talk of telescopes and instruments on satellites as remote sensing equipment. Usually it involves some kind of imaging.
The images can be used for many purposes, surveillance, environmental studies, estimating the amount of land burned in a fire or flooded, etc.

Prior to the late 1950s, the main use or function of rockets was for what?

Answer: instruments of war, instruments of warfare, military weapons, weapons

Explanation: Up until the 1950s rockets were mainly used and developed as weapons for the military. Following the launch of Sputnik they were used additionally for boosting payloads into space.

The launch of what Russian satellite in 1957 set off the space race?
Rasputin
Soyuez
Stalin
Sputnik

Sputnik

Which of the following would NOT be considered a satellite?
The Moon
Io (a moon of Jupiter's)
Earth
A galaxy

A galaxy because galaxies do not orbit around other objects.

Satellites in orbit around the earth are often used for military surveillance, communications, and environmental observations.

True

What tools used in space exploration do not usually orbit the Earth or another body, but are associated with the study of objects that are far away from earth, out in the solar system?

Probes

Explanation: Probes do not usually orbit the Earth or another body and are associated with the study of a body that is far away from the Earth.

Most of what we know about space and the objects in space comes from our study of _________________ and its properties.

light

The word which describes the action taking place in our universe when we look at the positions of objects, like galaxies, in relation to each other is?

Answer: Expansion Explanation: The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang and is still expanding. Because of this objects in the universe continue to get farther and farther apart.

There are two types of Body Waves, P or Primary waves and S or Secondary waves. Following an earthquake which travels fastest and reaches seismic stations first? Which of these waves travels through both solids and liquids and which can travel only through solids, not liquids?

P-waves travel at speeds faster than the S-waves and reach seismic stations before S-waves. P-waves can travel through both solid and liquid materials and therefore travel straight through the outer core which is liquid. S-waves travel only through solids and therefore cannot pass through the outer core, which is liquid.

The ____________ of the earth is broken into several major and minor moving pieces, which are called ______________.

The crust of the earth is broken into large, moving pieces called plates.

According to the scientific community of Alfred Wegener's day, what was the flaw in his theory of continental drift?

A fatal weakness in Wegener's theory was that it could not satisfactorily answer the most fundamental question raised by his critics: What kind of forces could be strong enough to move such large masses of solid rock over such great distances?

Explanation: The theory of continental drift would become the spark that ignited a new way of viewing the earth. But at the time Wegener introduced his theory, the scientific community firmly believed the continents and oceans to be permanent features on the earth's surface. Not surprisingly, his proposal was not well received, even though it seemed to agree with the scientific information available at the time.

Which of the following men were most instrumental in putting together the evidence for supporting the theory of plate tectonics?

Matthew Maury
Jaques Cousteau
Alfred Wegener
James Hutton

Alfred Wegener

In 1912 the idea of moving continents was seriously considered as a full-blown scientific theory -- called Continental Drift -- introduced in 2 articles published by a 32-year-old German meteorologist named Alfred Lothar Wegener. He contended that, around 200 million years ago, the supercontinent Pangaea began to split apart. Wegener's theory was based in part on what appeared to him to be the remarkable fit of the South American and African continents.

Wegener was also intrigued by the occurrences of unusual geologic structures and of plant and animal fossils found on the matching coastlines of South America and Africa, which are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean. He reasoned that it was physically impossible for most of these organisms to have swum or have been transported across the vast oceans. To him, the presence of identical fossil species along the coastal parts of Africa and South America was the most compelling evidence that the two continents were once joined.

In Wegener's mind, the drifting of continents after the break-up of Pangaea explained not only the matching fossil occurrences but also the evidence of dramatic climate changes on some continents.

What process is being described in the following?

Due to processes inside the earth, there are large convection cells set up in the mantle. As the asthenosphere, or lower mantle, flows, it carries along with it large plates of the crust, resulting in events such as mountain formation, earthquakes, volcanoes, and new crust being formed.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism

Plate Tectonics

What process is being described in the following?

The processes involved in shaping the earth that are occurring on the earth now, in the present, are the same as were occurring in the past and can be used to study and make speculation about the shaping of the earth in the past.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism

Uniformitarianism

What process is being described in the following?

An early theory that proposed that the continents were perhaps once a large continent called Pangea and that continent split apart and the continents moved over the course of millions of years to their present locations.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism

Continental Drift

What process is being described in the following?

In places where plates are being pulled apart, magma seeps up through cracks in the crust and creates new sea floor.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism

Sea Floor Spreading

Explain what a hotspot is and how hotspot activity is different from other volcanic activity.

Hotspots do not occur at plate boundaries as does most other volcanic activity. Hotspots are areas where magma rises to the surface at a point in the interior of a plate. They remain in the same place and the plate moves over them resulting in a line of volcanoes.

List the 4 basic layers of the earth. Begin at the surface and work towards the center.

Answer: crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. Explanation:
1. The crust is the outermost layer.
2. The mantle lies just below the crust. The core, or the center of the earth, has two distinct parts,
3. the outer core and
4. the inner core.

We live on the mantle.

False

We live on the crust, the outer layer of the earth.

When considered together, the crust and the mantle are divided into two layers relative to their ability to move and their flexibility. Though considered a solid, the materials composing the lower mantle have the consistency of hot asphalt. This material flows and carries the upper mantle and crust along as it flows. This, flowing, lower mantle is called the

Hydrosphere
Asthenosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere

Asthenosphere

Which is thicker:

Continental crust
Oceanic crust

Continental

The thickest portions of crust are the continental portions. The thinnest portions are on the ocean floor.

Explanation: The continents are made of much lighter, less dense materials that ride over the oceanic crust. So, under the continents there is usually a portion of oceanic crust, making the continental areas the thickest portions, up to 25 miles thick (32km). The oceanic crust is not much more than 5 miles thick (8km) at it's thickest point.

Three of the 4 layers of the earth exist in the solid state; the fourth exists as a liquid. Which of the 4 layers is liquid?

Crust
Mantle
Outer core
Inner core

Outer Core

The outer core's materials are under great pressure and heat and exist as a liquid

The upper mantle and the crust are rigid and brittle and together are called the __________.

Hydrosphere
Asthenosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere

Lithosphere

The core of the earth is mainly composed of _______ and ___________

iron and nickel

Along transform boundaries, two plates slide horizontally passed each other. Along these boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault, crust is not created or destroyed and no particular landform is associated with the boundary. However, a very powerful event occurs as these plates move. What event is associated with transform plate boundary movement?

When the plates move they release seismic waves--an earthquake occurs.

At a convergent or subduction boundary, one plate, usually the oceanic plate, slides under another plate, usually a continental plate, as they come together. What land/ocean features are created by this type of plate collision?

Convergent or subduction boundaries produce island arcs, deep ocean trenches, and volcanoes on the continent.

At a divergent boundary, plates spread apart, magma rises and cools. This process is associated with the creation of what land/ocean floor feature?

Divergent boundaries are associated with the creation of new sea floor. At these divergent boundaries large mountain ranges are created--the global mid-ocean ridge is a result of the spreading of plates.

When two continental plates collide, this is called a collisional or plate boundary zone. The formation of what landforms is associated with this type of plate collision?

As two continental plates collide land is pushed up and mountains/mountain ranges are formed along these plate boundaries.

The longest chain of mountains on earth is called the

The Andes in Peru.
The Global mid-ocean ridge at the ocean bottom.
The Rockies in the western USA.
The Urals in Russia.

The global mid-ocean ridge is the longest mountain chain on the earth. It is a continuous chain of mountains found on the ocean floor, encircling the globe and over 5,000 miles long. It is formed from sea floor spreading. Plates are moving apart and volcanic activity forms the mountains.

Using an egg as a model of the earth, compare the layers of the egg to the layers of the earth. In this analogy, there will be only three layers. When you have finished your comparison of the parts of the egg with the layers of the earth, explain why using the egg as the model is not totally representative of the earth.

The egg is a good model of the earth's layers for the most part.
The shell would be analogous to the crust,
the egg white would be analogous to the mantle, and the yolk would represent the core, both outer and inner.
However, the core is not represented correctly by the egg's yolk which is all solid. Also, the outer core of the earth is liquid and is not represented in the egg at all.

Which type of seismic wave travels outward in all directions including downward, from the point where the earthquake occurs, the focus?

Body Waves
Surface Waves

BODY WAVES
There are two basic kinds of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel outward in all directions, including downward, from the quake's focus -- that is, the particular spot where the fault first began to rupture.

Which type of seismic wave travels parallel to the surface like ripples on the surface of a pond, and are restricted to the upper few hundred miles of crust?

Body Waves
Surface Waves

SURFACE WAVES

Surface waves, by contrast, are confined to the upper few hundred miles of the crust. They travel parallel to the surface, like ripples on the surface of a pond. They are also slower than body waves.

There are several major events associated with the moving of plates. For example: Tsunamis, which are large, seismic, ocean waves, can result when plates move suddenly. List three other events related to movement of the earth's plates.

volcanoes, earthquakes, and hotspots Explanation: All of these events are associated with plate movement. Tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquakes are associated with movement at the boundaries. Hotspots are events or phenomena that occur away from plate boundaries, often at the heart of the plates.

Along this type of fault, blocks of crust either push together or pull apart, with one block sliding either up or down a sloped fault plane.

Strike-slip Fault
Slip-dip Fault

Slip-dip Fault

Along this type of fault, the plates slide past each other like cars traveling opposite directions on a highway.

Strike-slip Fault
Slip-dip Fault`

Strike slip Fault

The type of boundary where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones

Transform

The type of boundary where new crust is created as the plates pull away from each other:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones

Divergent Boundaries

The type of boundary where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones

Convergent Boundaries

These volcanoes are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. Flow after flow pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents, building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat, domical shape, with a profile much like that of a warrior's shield.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes

Shield Volcanoes

These are typically steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of layers of lava flows, alternating with volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. The volcano is built up by the accumulation of material erupted through the central conduit and increases in size as lava, cinders, ash, etc., are added to its slopes.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes

Composite Volcanoes

These are formed by relatively small, bulbous masses of lava too viscous to flow any great distance; consequently, on extrusion, the lava piles over and around its vent. A dome grows largely by expansion from within.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes

Lava Domes

These are built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone. Most have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet or so above their surroundings.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes

Cinder Cones

An area that is fairly far away from plate boundaries, fault lines, and other tectonic activity would
Experience many earthquakes and few volcanoes.
Experience extremely few earthquakes and no volcanic activity.
Experience severe earthquakes.
Experience major volcanic activity.

Experience extremely few earthquakes and no volcanic activity

Because earthquakes and volcanic activity occur at plate boundaries as plates move past each other and near faults, Any region, distant from either of these features does not experience either.

Explain what karst geology is and how it forms.

Karst geology refers to the land features that are produced by erosion that is associated with chemical weathering of the limestone that makes the karst region. When water flows through the pores and the cracks of the limestone. Water is slightly acidic and can become more so when it flows through plant material that is decaying. This acidic water reacts with the calcium in the limestone and dissolves it creating larger holes which can, over much time, become caverns, sinkholes and springs.

List at least three land features that are commonly found in areas with karst geology

Caves/caverns, sinkholes, springs, disappearing streams, and underground drainage systems.

Explanation: All of these can be formed from the chemical weathering (dissolving) of limestone.

Most of the United States sits on which major tectonic plate?

North American

Why does the USGS monitor mineral production and distribution of mineral resource all over the world?

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) collects statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S. economy, national security, and protection of the environment.

If a city were located along a subduction zone, that is a plate boundary at which one plate is being pulled beneath the other, this city would
Most likely experience volcanoes, but not earthquakes.
Most likely experience earthquakes, but not volcanoes.
Be subject to explosive volcanoes and earthquakes.
None of these

Be subject to explosive volcanoes and earthquakes.

This city would be subject to both earthquakes and volcanoes - like California.

Soil is mainly composed of inorganic particles, but can contain organic material. What is meant by "organic material" and what would be examples of organic material that is found in soil?

Organic refers to "from life" or from a living thing. So, organic materials in soil would be things that are living or things that were part of or came from living things. For example: Bugs, bacteria, and funguses live in soil. They would count as organic material. OR there may be pieces of leaves, roots and other plant parts in soil... also organic material, because they came from living things.

Soils differ from each other or from place to place due to or because of the differing amounts of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter contained in them.

True

Erosion can be defined as the removal of soil from an exposed area. There are two main categories of erosion, geologic and accelerated:

a. Define each.
b. Describe the main difference between the two.
c. Give examples of each type.

Geologic erosion is erosion of naturally exposed soil.
Accelerated erosion is erosion of soil that has been exposed by the activities of man.

The main difference between the two is the influence of man. Geologic is not influenced by the activities of man, accelerated erosion is influenced by the activities of man. An example of geologic erosion would be the formation of a gully in a desert area after a heavy rain storm, or the formation of the Grand Canyon. An example of accelerated erosion would have been the Dust Bowl event in our country's history or the erosion of soil from a construction site from which all the vegetation has been removed.

Diamond and graphite are minerals that are composed exclusively of carbon atoms. What characteristic of the mineral diamond makes it harder than the mineral graphite?

The carbon atoms in the diamond are arranged in a way that they are compactly arranged and are bonded strongly. The graphite's atoms are more loosely arranged and bonded less strongly.

A natural, nonliving material with a uniform structure and composition throughout the sample
Rock or
Mineral

mineral

A mixture of minerals
Rock or
Mineral

Rock

Igneous

Rock or
Mineral

Rock

Gold

Rock or
Mineral

Mineral

Talc

Rock or
Mineral

Mineral

Metamorphic

Rock or
Mineral

Rock

Explain the difference between erosion and accelerated erosion.

Ersoion is the removal and transportaion of soil materials from one place to an other by natural causes. Accellerated erosion is the same as erosion, but sped up or influenced by the activities of man.

The quality of a mineral that causes it to split, leaving smooth, flat surfaces.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density

Cleavage

A mineral's resistance to being scratched.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density

Hardness

The way a mineral reflects light.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density

Luster

Describes how heavy a particular mineral is for its size.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density

Density

Not a good characteristic for identification because many minerals have a variety of colors.
Streak
Color

Correct

The color of the fine powder of the mineral when it is rubbed on the dull side of a piece of white ceramic tile.
Streak
Color

Streak

Which of the following processes are involved in the formation of igneous rocks? There are two correct choices.
Cooling of magma or lava
Heat and pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing melting)
Crystallization (the process that takes place as magma or lava cools and hardens into rock)
Weathering (the breakdown of parent rock material into smaller pieces eventually forming soil)

Cooling of magma or lava

Crystallization (the process that takes place as magma or lava cools and hardens into rock)

Which of the following processes are involved in the formation of metamorphic rocks? There are two correct choices.
Heat (as rock is moved down deeper into the mantle, it gets hotter changing the consistency of the rock)
Pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing a change in the arrangement of the minerals in the rock)
Erosion (the removal of the top layer of soil from an area)
Recrystallization (previously formed rock that melts, then recrystallizes)

Heat (as rock is moved down deeper into the mantle, it gets hotter changing the consistency of the rock)

Pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing a change in the arrangement of the minerals in the rock)

Which of the following processes is involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks? There are three correct answers.
Compaction and cementation (processes acting on deposited sediments as a result of pressure and the presence of various minerals that will cement the sediment particles together)
Heat and pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing melting)
Weathering and erorosion (rock is brokend down by geologic processes and then transported to another location by wind, water, or glaciers)
Exposure (the removal of surface vegetation resulting in the possibility that soils will be eroded by wind or water)

Compaction and cementation (processes acting on deposited sediments as a result of pressure and the presence of various minerals that will cement the sediment particles together)

Weathering and erorosion (rock is brokend down by geologic processes and then transported to another location by wind, water, or glaciers)

Which of the following were factors that influenced the Dust Bowl event?

There are three correct answers.

Too many buffalo were left to overgraze the plains.
Decades of settlement in those areas and the increase in the number of farms.
Removal of the native grasses to plant crops.
Drought caused crops to fail leaving the soil exposed to the winds.

Decades of settlement in those areas and the increase in the number of farms.
Removal of the native grasses to plant crops.
Drought caused crops to fail leaving the soil exposed to the winds.

Scientists estimate the age of the earth to be ____________________.

4.3 to 4.6 billion years

Atoms, such as carbon-14, which are not stable and decay into a second, or daughter element, are said to be radioactive.

True

Radiometric dating is dependent on the concept of "half-lives." A half-life is the amount of time that it takes for half of the parent element to decay to the daughter element. The idea is that each radioactive element has its own specific half-life. This half-life is the same amount of time no matter how much of the radioactive element has decayed previously. So, if you have say 50 grams of radioactive element A. After one half-life there will be 25 grams of the parent element, and 25 grams of the daughter element. After the second half-life there will be 12.5 grams of the parent and 37.5 grams and so on. So, now say the half-life of this element A is 200 years. How many years would have passed if there were only 3.125 grams of the parent element left? (Hint: How many half-lives would it take to get down to that much parent element?)

Answer: 800 years

Explanation: Half- life / amount of element left
50g / 2 = 25g (200 years)
25g / 2 = 6.75g (600 years)
6.75g / 2 = 3.125g (800 years)

The most common form of carbon, carbon-12, has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons, Carbon-13 has 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Carbon-14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. So we have three forms atoms of this element. These various forms of the atom are called
A. Radioactive Elements
B. Isotopes
C. Electrodes

Isotopes

This principle states that in layers of rock that have been undisturbed, undeformed in any way, the lowest layers formed first, then the next and the next, and so on to the top layer. That puts the oldest layer on the bottom and the layers get younger and younger as you go up.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism

The Law of Superposition

Geologically, when fossils found in rock layers are considered, it is believed that identification of the fossils can help determine the age of the sedimentary rock layer in which the fossil is found. The older fossils are found in lower layers younger fossils in upper layers.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism

The Law of Faunal Succession

The belief that all of the processes at work today, that shape the face of the earth, were at work in the past; not only did the processes occur in the past, but they occurred at the same rate and in the same way as they do today.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism

Uniformitarianism

Very simply, this principle states that when sedimentary layers are first formed, the sediments fall in horizontal layers.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism

The Law of Uniform Horizontality

Explain how relative time/dating is different than absolute time/dating.

Relative time/dating is not an exact age, it is based on other evidences. For example, if we have a series of horizontal rock layers, I can give an "older age" to the bottom layer and a "younger" age to the subsequent layers as you move up from the bottom.
Absolute time/dating is giving an object an exact or numerical age.

___________________ dating is a technique that uses radioactive elements to determine the absolute age of rocks and fossils (not absolute dating).

Radiometric dating is used to determine the age of rocks and fossils.

A trace of or portion of an organism which lived in the past is called a ______________.

fossil

Index fossils are well known fossils and are used to give relative ages of rock layers in which they are found.

True

By using radiometric dating scientists have identified the ages of fossils that are commonly found in sedimentary rock layers. It has also been observed that the fossils occur in a particular order in the layers of sedimentary rock layers all over the Earth. So, scientists now use these common fossils of known age as indexes. When they find that particular type of fossil, they can give a relative age to the rock layer it was found in

How do scientists use fact and inferences to determine or make assumptions about a situation?

First, we collect direct evidences: What are the facts we can observe directly? Then based on the facts we make inferences. Inferences are not facts, but the facts suggest the inference.

List the 4 major divisions of the geologic time scale in order from most recent to the most distant in the past.

Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrian

The Precambrian period of time is the most distant past. This period of time is often called the Cryptozoic period. Crypto for "hidden" and zoic for "life." Why is this an appropriate name for this time period?

Cryptozoic means hidden life. This is appropriate for the Precambrian time period because we know very little about the life that existed in that time period. The further and further we go back the fewer fossil evidences that we have.

Explain why it is impossible to know the exact age of the Earth? Give two reasons.

First, no direct witnesses were there. Second, there are few rocks from that period left. They have been changed by sedimentation and metamorphism.

The age of mammals, including man:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic

Cenozoic

The birth of the Earth occurred in which age:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic

Precambrian

The age of the reptile and the dinosaur:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic

Mesozoic

The age of the the invertebrates, the fish, and the amphibians:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic

Paleozoic

Egg as compared to the earth

plates
core
mantle
crust

plates--cracked pieces
core--egg yolk
mantle--egg white
crust--egg shell (whole thing)

asthenosphere

the lower pliable mantle

lithosphere

the crust and brittle upper mantle forms the lithosphere

plate tectonics

the theory that implies that large portions of the earth's crust move is called plate tectonics

Mid-ocean ridge

The longest mountain range on earth's surface is the Mid-ocean ridge

plate

The large potions of the crust which move about on the mantle are the plates

James Hutton

scientist who proposed and popularized the idea that geologic processes occurring today occurred in the same way in the past.

Alfred Wegener

scientist who proposed and popularized the idea that the sea floor was spreading, causing the continents to move apart.

Which of the following characteristics does NOT describe the Mid-Ocean Ridge?

Averages 4,500m above sea floor
It is seen crossing the western edge of the North and South American continents.
It is over 50,000 km in length.
In places, is 800km across/wide

It is seen crossing the western edge of the North and South American continents.

transform boundary

The type of boundary where two plates slide horizontally past each other is called a transform boundary

convergent boundary

A boundary where two plates meet and collide forming mountains is called a .convergent boundary

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