Combo with BUL 17 MC and 15 others

560 terms by lacemontgomery 

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Adult Shoppe in Beach City sells a variety of publications, including child pornography. Beach City enacts an ordinance prohibiting the sale of such materials. This ordinance is most likely

a. an invalid restriction of individuals' privacy.
b. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.
c. a violation of adults' rights to enjoy certain privileges.
d. constitutional under the First Amendment.

d. constitutional under the First Amendment.

Alan, the president of Bayside Investments, Inc., and Colin, Bayside's accountant, are charged with a crime, after the police search Bayside's offices. Under the exclusionary rule

a. certain Bayside records are excluded from subpoena.
b. certain parties to a criminal action may be excluded from a trial.
c. illegally obtained evidence must be excluded from a trial.
d. persons who have biases that would prevent them from fairly decid¬ing the case may be excluded from the jury.

c. illegally obtained evidence must be excluded from a trial.

Any decision by the management of Fast-Food Franchise Corporation may significantly affect its

a. operators only.
b. operators, owners, suppliers, the community, or society as a whole.
c. owners only.
d. suppliers, the community, or society as a whole only.

b. operators, owners, suppliers, the community, or society as a whole.

Applied Business Corporation makes and markets its products nationwide. Under the stakeholder approach, to be considered socially responsible when making a business decision, Applied must take into account the needs of

a. its consumers, the community, and society only.
b. its employees and owners only.
c. its employees, owners, consumers, the community, and society.
d. no one.

c. its employees, owners, consumers, the community, and society.

As a joke, Jem takes Kyla's business law textbook and hides it so that Kyla cannot find it during the week before the exam. Jem may have committed

a. appropriation.
b. conversion.
c. intentional infliction of emotional distress.
d. trespass to personal property.

d. trespass to personal property.

As a judge, Potter applies common law rules. These rules develop from

a. administrative regulations.
b. court decisions.
c. federal and state statutes.
d. proposed uniform laws.

b. court decisions.

As part of a sale of a business, Lee signs a covenant not to compete that is unreasonable in its essential terms. To prevent undue hardship, a court will most likely

a. enforce the covenant as written.
b. enforce the covenant but evaluate its effects over time.
c. reform the covenant's terms.
d. refuse to enforce the covenant without additional consideration.

c. reform the covenant's terms.

At a prison in Ohio, inmate Steve recruits other inmates to play Towers & Trolls, a potentially violent, fantasy, role-playing game. Ryan, the prison's warden, confiscates the game materials and bans its play at the prison. Under the principles discussed in "A Sample Court Case," Singer v. Raemisch, Ryan most likely acted

a. in violation of Steve's rights under the First Amendment.
b. reasonably in taking the game materials but not in banning its play.
c. reasonably in banning the game but not in taking the materials.
d. reasonably in the circumstances and under the law.

d. reasonably in the circumstances and under the law.

At an auction, Vigo bids on an object, believing that it is worth more than the price asked. When the item proves to be less valuable, Vigo is

a. liable on the bid.
b. not liable on the bid because Vigo misestimated the value.
c. not liable on the bid because the auctioneer misstated the value.
d. not liable on the bid because the object was probably overpriced.

a. liable on the bid.

Augustus, who is Bertha's guardian, convinces her to buy a certain parcel of land from Christy at a greatly inflated price. Augustus may be liable for

a. mistake.
b. puffery.
c. unconscionability.
d. undue influence.

d. undue influence.

Auto Body Repair Shop (ABRS) promises to pay Ben $1,000 a week to work for ABRS. Ben accepts and quits his job with Car Care Service. ABRS fails to provide a job for Ben. Ben has a cause of action based on

a. an illusory promise.
b. a release.
c. past consideration.
d. promissory estoppel.

d. promissory estoppel.

Avatar, Inc., and Bling Corporation sign a contract in which Avatar agrees to deliver t-shirts emblazoned with video game characters in exchange for Bling's prom¬ise to pay. Avatar delivers. The contract is

a. voidable.
b. executed.
c. executive.
d. executory.

d. executory.

Bailey, the president of Carmichael Commodities Company, claims that certain actions by the federal government and by the state of Delaware infringe on rights guar¬anteed by the Bill of Rights. All of these rights limit

a. neither Delaware nor the federal government.
b. the federal government only.
c. Delaware and the federal government.
d. Delaware only.

b. the federal government only.

Baked Stuff Company agrees to supply Comida Café with all the corn chips that it re¬quires for a year. A sudden blight caused by an organism hitherto unknown in the United States results in a shortage of corn, and the price rises sharply. Baked Stuff asks Comida to pay a higher price for the chips. This request is

a. invalid as an attempt at extortion or the so-called holdup game.
b. invalid under the preexisting duty rule.
c. valid as a risk ordinarily assumed in business.
d. valid due to the unforeseen difficulty of the sudden price increase.

d. valid due to the unforeseen difficulty of the sudden price increase.

Bay City Construction, Inc., a contractor, asks Cool Electric, a subcontractor, to provide certain services. Nothing is expressed about payment. Cool provides the services, but Bay City refuses to pay. In Cool's suit to recover, the chief issue is most likely to be whether these parties had

a. a formal contract.
b. an actual contract.
c. an implied-in-fact contract.
d. a voidable contract.

c. an implied-in-fact contract.

Bayside Construction Company enters into a contract with Clio to remodel Dewey's Home Store, using products from Eagle Building Supplies. Fresh Food Café is next to Dewey's Home Store. The remodeling is a gift from Clio to Dewey, Clio's nephew and the owner of Dewey's Home Store. Dewey is

a. a delegatee.
b. an assignee.
c. an incidental beneficiary.
d. an intended beneficiary.

d. an intended beneficiary.

Bayside Construction Company enters into a contract with Clio to remodel Dewey's Home Store, using products from Eagle Building Supplies. Fresh Food Café is next to Dewey's Home Store. The remodeling is a gift from Clio to Dewey, Clio's nephew and the owner of Dewey's Home Store. Eagle will realize a profit from the sale of prod¬ucts to Bayside to remodel Dewey's store. Eagle is

a. a delegatee.
b. an assignee.
c. an incidental beneficiary.
d. an intended beneficiary.

c. an incidental beneficiary.

Bayside Construction Company enters into a contract with Clio to remodel Dewey's Home Store, using products from Eagle Building Supplies. Fresh Food Café is next to Dewey's Home Store. The remodeling is a gift from Clio to Dewey, Clio's nephew and the owner of Dewey's Home Store. Halfway through the project, Bayside refuses to finish the job. The contract can be enforced against Bayside by

a. Clio only.
b. Clio or Dewey only.
c. Clio, Dewey, or Eagle only.
d. Clio, Dewey, Eagle, or Fresh Food.

b. Clio or Dewey only.

Bayside Construction Company enters into a contract with Clio to remodel Dewey's Home Store, using products from Eagle Building Supplies. Fresh Food Café is next to Dewey's Home Store. The remodeling is a gift from Clio to Dewey, Clio's nephew and the owner of Dewey's Home Store. The value of Fresh Food's property will increase after Dewey's store is remodeled. Fresh Food is

a. a delegatee.
b. an assignee.
c. an incidental beneficiary.
d. an intended beneficiary.

c. an incidental beneficiary.

Beachside City enacts an ordinance that bans the distribu¬tion of all printed materials on city streets. Carl opposes the city's latest "revenue-enhancing" measure and wants to protest by distributing handbills. In his suit against the city, a court would likely hold the printed-materials ban to be

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.
b. constitutional under the First Amendment.
c. justified by the need to protect individual rights.
d. necessary to protect national interests.

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.

Beachside Pools, Inc., agrees to build a swimming pool for Candy, but fails to build it according to the contract specifications. Candy hires Do-We Fix-It Company to finish the project. Candy may recover from Beachside

a. the contract price less costs of materials and labor.
b. the contract price.
c. the costs needed to complete construction.
d. profits plus the costs incurred up to the time of the breach.

c. the costs needed to complete construction.

Bell Medical Education Service enters into a contract to employ Chris as an instructor for two years to begin May 1. One month before the term begins, Bell is underbid by a competitor and loses a major client, Delta Hospital Center. Bell now refuses to hire Chris. Bell's repudiation is most likely

a. a material breach.
b. a minor breach.
c. Chris's breach.
d. no breach.

a. a material breach.

Bell Medical Education Service enters into a contract to employ Chris as an instructor for two years to begin May 1. One month before the term begins, Bell is underbid by a competitor and loses a major client, Delta Hospital Center. Bell now refuses to hire Chris. Under the circumstances, with respect to damages, Chris can

a. bring an action immediately.
b. bring an action only after the contract's two-year term begins.
c. bring an action only after the contract's two-year term ends.
d. do nothing

a. bring an action immediately.

Bella owns a farm in Colorado. Doyle drives his sport utility vehicle off a highway and onto Bella's land. Doyle commits trespass if he

a. does not have Bella's permission to drive on the property.
b. drives onto the property for recreational purposes.
c. harms the property in a material way.
d. harms the property in any way.

a. does not have Bella's permission to drive on the property.

Belle enters into a contract to subdivide and sell housing lots in Cole's hillside field if Dell City annexes the property within the next year. Belle's duty to perform is

a. absolute.
b. conditional.
c. illusional.
d. irresolute.

b. conditional.

Ben and Ivy enter into a contract under which Ben agrees to cater Ivy's wedding in exchange for a cash down payment. The contract expressly prohibits any transfer of rights. A contract right may be transferred, however, if the transfer involves

a. a right to receive payment.
b. a right to Ben's services.
c. rights under Ivy's insurance policy against Ben's failing to perform.
d. a right whose transfer is otherwise expressly prohibited by statute.

a. a right to receive payment.

Berkie's bicycle is damaged in an accident caused by Imogene. Berkie agrees not to sue Imogene if she will pay for the damage. If she fails to pay, Berkie can bring an action for breach of contract. This is

a. a covenant not to sue.
b. an accord and satisfaction.
c. an illusory promise.
d. a release.

a. a covenant not to sue.

Bess runs Creditors Asset Recovery. She recruits clients by misrepresenting the facts and pretending to be licensed in various occupations in Michigan. Bess's conduct most likely warrants

a. an ethical admonishment but no other sanctions.
b. an injunction plus other sanctions.
c. no sanctions but no praise.
d. praise for her aggression in recovering the assets of "deadbeat" debtors.

b. an injunction plus other sanctions.

Best Construction, Inc., contracts to build a store for Cheesy Pizza Company, with Cheesy's payment due on June 1. On June 1, Cheesy's bank is closed, and for this reason, Cheesy claims it cannot pay Best on time. In this situation

a. Cheesy's bank is in breach of contract.
b. Cheesy is in breach of contract.
c. the contract is discharged.
d. the contract is suspended.

b. Cheesy is in breach of contract.

Beta Grocers orders by phone twenty cartons of canned beets from Carotene Food Packers, Inc. After ten cartons are delivered and accepted, Beta repudiates the contract. Carotene can enforce the contract to

a. any extent because the order was placed orally.
b. no extent because the order was placed orally.
c. the extent of the ten accepted cartons.
d. the extent of the twenty ordered cartons.

c. the extent of the ten accepted cartons.

Beth is a victim of Carl's violation of a criminal law. Criminal law is con¬cerned with

a. the prosecution of private individuals by other private individuals.
b. the prosecution of public officials by private individuals.
c. the relief available when a person's rights are violated.
d. wrongs committed against the public as a whole.

d. wrongs committed against the public as a whole.

Bette backs out of City Parking Garage, colliding with Dill's car. Dill may recover $7,500 to cover the cost of the repairs if Bette failed to act as

a. a blameless person.
b a faultless person.
c. a reliable person.
d. a reasonable person.

d. a reasonable person.

Betty files a suit against Carl. Before going to trial, the parties meet, with their attorneys to represent them, to try to resolve their dispute without involving a third party. This is

a. arbitration.
b. litigation.
c. mediation.
d. negotiation

d. negotiation.

Betty, a minor, signs a contract to buy an SUV by misrepresenting her age to be twenty-one. In most states, Betty may

a. disaffirm the contract.
b. disaffirm the contract only if she first makes full payment.
c. disaffirm the contract only if she returns the SUV in orig¬inal condition.
d. not disaffirm the contract.

a. disaffirm the contract.

Beyond-the-Sea Corporation and Homeport Company make a deal for Homeport's products, via e-records. Under the UETA, an e-record is considered sent when it

a. is signed and encrypted, and will be sent without changes.
b. is stored in the sender's back-up system.
c. is composed on the sender's computer.
d. leaves the sender's control.

d. leaves the sender's control.

Biff wrongfully takes an unopened carton from a Cold Storage Warehouse loading dock, puts the carton in his car, and drives away. This is

a. burglary.
b. forgery.
c. larceny.
d. no crime.

c. larceny.

Bilt-Well Construction Corporation makes a side payment to a govern¬ment official in Nigeria to obtain a contract. In the United States, this is

a. illegal and unethical.
b. illegal but not unethical.
c. unethical but not illegal.
d. legal and ethical.

a. illegal and unethical.

Blueberry Café signs an agreement with County Credit Bank to borrow $40,000 at 20 percent interest. Later, the state legislature passes a law lowering the maximum permissible rate of interest to 15 per¬cent. Blueberry's best argument for avoiding payment to County Credit is that

a. performance of the contract is commercially impracticable.
b. payment of the loan would force the debtor into bankruptcy.
c. the law has rendered performance of the contract illegal.
d. the specific subject matter of the contract has been destroyed.

c. the law has rendered performance of the contract illegal.

Bob is arrested at his home, after the police search it and seize certain property to be used as evidence. A judge sets Bob's bail, as required by a state statute, and Bob is put on trial. The U.S. Constitution provides safeguards against all of the following except

a. arrests without probable cause.
b. excessive bail.
c. trying someone for a criminal offense.
d. unreasonable searches and seizures.

c. trying someone for a criminal offense.

Bob, research manager for CornAgri Products, Inc., ap¬plies utilitarian ethics to determine that an action is morally cor¬rect when it produces the greatest good for

a. Bob.
b. CornAgri.
c. the fewest people.
d. the most people.

d. the most people.

Bobbie claims that Carl breached their contract. Carl responds that he never intended to enter into a contract with Bobbie. The intent to enter into a contract is determined with reference to

a. the conscious theory of contracts.
b. the objective theory of contracts.
c. the personal theory of contracts.
d. the subjective theory of contracts.

b. the objective theory of contracts.

Boris programs software to prompt a computer to continually crash and reboot. Boris's goal is to install this program on various companies' computer systems without the companies' knowledge. The program can reproduce itself, but must be attached to a host file to travel from one computer network to another. This program is

a. a hacker.
b. a bot.
c. a virus.
d. a worm.

c. a virus.

Brad defends against a breach-of-contract suit by College Credit Corporation by claiming that their deal—a student loan accruing interest at a certain rate and payable beginning on a certain date—was unfair because the consideration for their contract was inadequate.

"Adequacy" of consideration refers to

a. "how much" consideration is given.
b. legally sufficient value in the eyes of the law.
c. the intangible value to a contracting party of a thing exchanged.
d. the substantiality of the consideration exchanged.

a. "how much" consideration is given.

Brad defends against a breach-of-contract suit by College Credit Corporation by claiming that their deal—a student loan accruing interest at a certain rate and payable beginning on a certain date—was unfair because the consideration for their contract was inadequate.

A court is most likely to evaluate the adequacy of consid¬era¬tion if

a. a thing exchanged has no intangible value to one of the parties.
b. something exchanged is not of direct economic or financial value.
c. the items exchanged were of unequal value.
d. there is a gross disparity in the value of the consideration exchanged.

d. there is a gross disparity in the value of the consideration exchanged.

Brad defends against a breach-of-contract suit by College Credit Corporation by claiming that their deal—a student loan accruing interest at a certain rate and payable beginning on a certain date—was unfair because the consideration for their contract was inadequate.

If, as Brad claims, the consideration in this problem is inadequate, it may indicate a lack of

a. accord in Brad's satisfaction with the value of the deal.
b. bargained-for exchange or mutual assent.
c. flexibility on the part of College Credit to accommodate Brad's needs.
d. "heft," "substance," or "weight" in the terms of the contract.

b. bargained-for exchange or mutual assent.

Brad stands in front of Rustler's Round-Up Café, shouting "fighting words" that are likely to incite Rustler's patrons to respond violently. The First Amendment protects such speech

a. all of the time.
b. none of the time.
c. only if it is noncommercial.
d. only if it is symbolic.

b. none of the time.

Braxton questions whether there is consideration for his contract with Tawny to exchange his accounting services for her payment of a certain amount. To constitute consideration, there must be

a. a payment of money.
b. a performance of services.
c. a bargained-for exchange.
d. detrimental reliance.

c. a bargained-for exchange.

Bree is a real estate broker licensed only in Minnesota. She concludes a sale in North Dakota on O'Reilly's behalf. Bree's contract with O'Reilly to be paid a certain commission for the sale is

a. enforceable if O'Reilly comprehended the consequences.
b. enforceable if O'Reilly knew Bree was not licensed in North Dakota.
c. enforceable if the amount of her commission is reasonable.
d. unenforceable.

d. unenforceable.

Bret and Cory enter into a contract under which Bret agrees to sell his textbook to Cory for $60 at the end of the fall semester. Bret wants to transfer his right to payment for the book to Del. This transfer

a. is prohibited.
b. may be oral or written.
c. must be implied.
d. must be in writing.

b. may be oral or written.

Bret contracts to work for City Construction Corporation (CCC) dur¬ing July for $4,500. On June 30, CCC cancels the contract. Bret declines a similar job with Downtown Builders, Inc., which would have paid $4,000. Bret files a suit against CCC. As compensatory damages, Bret can recover

a. $4,500.
b. $4,000.
c. $500.
d. $0.

c. $500.

Bret enters into a contract with Collegiate University over the Internet to take an online course titled "Internet Law." This is an e-contract because

a. the contract was entered into over the Internet.
b. the contract was formed between a student and a university.
c. the contract will be performed online.
d. the subject matter of the contract is "Internet Law."

a. the contract was entered into over the Internet.

Bret runs an illegal business and pays Cal, a law enforcement officer, not to interfere. The payments are discovered. Bret and Cal are sent to prison. Bret can successfully sue Cal for the return of

a. all of the money paid to Cal.
b. only the money paid to Cal that has been spent.
c. only the money paid to Cal that has not been spent.
d. none of the choices.

d. none of the choices.

Briana, an employee of Cotillion Bank, is charged with embezzlement, which requires

a. fraudulently appropriating another's property.
b. obtaining lawful possession of property.
c. physically taking property from its owner.
d. the use of force or fear.

a. fraudulently appropriating another's property.

Britney, an employee of Computer Associates, is arrested at work. A grand jury issues a formal charge against Britney for larceny. This charge is

a. an arraignment.
b. an indictment.
c. an information.
d. an inquisition.

b. an indictment.

Bruno is a businessperson with investments in legal and illegal opera¬tions. Bruno may be subject to penalties under RICO

a. for making an unprofitable, but legal, investment.
b. for the commission of any business fraud.
c. only in a case involving a "racket."
d. only in a case involving organized crime.

b. for the commission of any business fraud.

Building Restoration, Inc. (BRI), enters into a contract to refurbish an old train depot for Casual Dining, Inc., which plans to open Eat Up Restaurant in that location. If BRI completes most of the work promised in the contract, its performance will be

a. absolute.
b. complete.
c. material.
d. substantial.

d. substantial.

Business Investment Company and Chic Properties, Inc., contract for the sale of a retail mall. A mutual mistake of fact will make it possible for ei¬ther party to rescind the contract

a. if the mistake of fact is immaterial.
b. if the mistake of fact is material.
c. under any circumstances.
d. under no circumstances.

b. if the mistake of fact is material.

Business Markets Coalition (BMC), a political lobbying group, wants a certain policy enacted into law. If BMC's policy conflicts with the U.S. Constitution, a law embodying it can be enacted by

a. any state legislature and Congress.
b. any state legislature but not Congress.
c. Congress but not any state legislature.
d. none of the choices.

d. none of the choices.

Business Properties, Inc. (BPI), offers to sell a warehouse to Corporate Investments. Corporate says that it will pay BPI $100 to hold the offer open for three business days. This

a. creates an illegal contract by adding a clause to BPI's offer.
b. makes the offer irrevocable for three days if BPI accepts.
c. negates BPI's offer by changing the price term.
d. voids BPI's offer by extending the time term.

b. makes the offer irrevocable for three days if BPI accepts.

Caleb is driving a car in which Dotty is a passenger when an accident occurs. Caleb and Dotty are emotionally rattled, but neither is physically hurt. Caleb is not liable to Dotty on a negligence theory because

a. both parties were emotionally rattled.
b. Caleb did not apparently intend to cause an accident.
c. Dotty must have been comparatively negligent.
d. Dotty was not injured.

d. Dotty was not injured.

California enacts a statute to ban advertising in "bad taste." This stat¬ute would likely be held by a court to be

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.
b. constitutional under the First Amendment.
c. justified by the need to protect individual rights.
d. necessary to protect national interests.

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.

Candy enters into a contract under which she agrees to pay Dino for a business survey and review of her competitors. Dino agrees to deliver the survey by July 1. Candy's offer, on July 1, to pay Dino is

a. complete.
b. substantial.
c. tender.
d. tough.

c. tender.

Carol files a suit against Downwind Boat Corporation. Downwind responds that it appears from the pleadings the parties do not dispute the facts and the only question is how the law applies to those facts. Downwind supports this response with witnesses' sworn statements. This is

a. a counterclaim.
b. a motion for judgment on the pleadings.
c. a motion for summary judgment.
d. a motion to dismiss.

c. a motion for summary judgment.

Cathy assures Don that she will deliver his products as he directs. An as¬sertion that one will do something in the future is part of the defini¬tion of
a. a declaration.
b. a moral obligation.
c. an ethical principle.
d. a promise.

d. a promise.

Chloe files a suit against Digital Consultants, Inc. (DCI), to enforce a con¬tract. The only written evidence of the contract is a memo in DCI's files written on DCI's let¬terhead and signed by a DCI officer. The con¬tract can be en¬forced if the memo includes

a. a correct title, such as "Chloe-DCI Contract."
b. all essential terms.
c. a statement of the consideration.
d. the parties' addresses.

b. all essential terms.

Chocolate Bites, Inc., and Delite Distribution, Inc., sign a written con¬tract for a sale of goods. To be enforceable, this written contract must include

a. a correct title, such as "Purchase Order" or "Sales Invoice."
b. a declaration of the subject matter.
c. a quantity term.
d. the parties' names.

c. a quantity term.

Chris, a minor, signs a contract to buy alcoholic beverages for Dine & Drink, his parents' restaurant. The contract is

a. valid but may be disaffirmed.
b. valid but may not be disaffirmed.
c. void as a matter of law.
d. void unless it is also signed by Edie, the manager of Dine & Drink.

c. void as a matter of law.

Chuckie, president of DrinkUp Fresh Beverages, Inc., does not ap¬ply utilitarianism to business ethical issues. One problem with utilitari¬an¬ism is that it

a. gives business profits priority over production costs.
b. ignores the practical costs of a given set of circumstances.
c. requires complex cost-benefit analyses of simple situations.
d. tends to justify human costs that many find unacceptable.

d. tends to justify human costs that many find unacceptable.

Clarice pays Damien $10,000 to design an ad campaign for her Sweetwater Coffee Stand chain. The next day, Damien tells Clarice that he has accepted a job in New York and cannot design her campaign. She files a suit against Damien. As compensatory damages, she can recover

a. $100,000.
b. $10,000.
c. $1,000.
d. $0.

b. $10,000.

Clay buys an MP3 player for $200 and a pair of stereo speakers for $600 from a Discount City store, and downloads $300 worth of digital music from E-Music.com. To be enforceable, the contract that must be in writing is the purchase of

a. the digital music, the MP3 player, and the speakers.
b. the MP3 player and the speakers only.
c. the MP3 player only.
d. the speakers only.

d. the speakers only.

Clay offers to pay Dot $50 for a golf lesson for Eula. They agree to meet the day after tomorrow to exchange the cash for the lesson. These parties have

a. a bilateral contract.
b. a trilateral contract.
c. a unilateral contract.
d. no contract.

a. a bilateral contract.

Clay, a minor, signs a contract to buy a car from Delta Motors by mis¬repre¬senting his age as twenty-one. Clay fails to make the pay¬ments. Delta sues. In most states, Clay can

a. not return the car nor avoid further liability.
b. not return the car but can avoid further liability.
c. return the car and avoid further liability.
d. return the car but cannot avoid further liability.

c. return the car and avoid further liability.

Clyde contracts with Deephole Excavation, Inc., to dig an agricultural pond on his farm. Deephole is to keep the excavated gravel in payment. Clyde's neighbor Earl challenges the dig as an illegal gravel pit. A court orders the digging to stop. Clyde's contract with Deephole is

a. breached.
b. discharged.
c. not affected.
d. suspended.

b. discharged.

Clyde enters Desert Decathlon, an athletic competition in which Clyde has often competed. Regarding the risk of injury, Clyde assumes the risks

a. attributable to the Decathlon in any way.
b. different from the risks normally associated with the Decathlon.
c. greater than the risks normally associated with the Decathlon.
d. normally associated with the Decathlon.

d. normally associated with the Decathlon.

Cody and Debora enter into an oral contract under which Cody agrees to work on Debora's ranch for not less than ten days. This contract is enforce¬able by

a. Cody only.
b. Debora only.
c. either party.
d. neither party.

c. either party.

Cole drives into Dino's Service Station and asks Erin, the attendant, to fill the tank in Cole's hybrid vehicle. After Erin fills the tank, but before Cole pays for the gas, any contract between Cole and Dino's is

a. executed.
b. executory.
c. quasi.
d. unenforceable.

b. executory.

Commercial Shipping, Inc., and Dock Services Corporation enter into a contract under which Commercial agrees to pay Dock to load Commercial's trucks. Dock transfers its duty to load the trucks to East Harbor Transport Company. Dock is

a. a delegator.
b. an assignor.
c. a payor.
d. a righter.

a. a delegator.

A common ethical dilemma faced by the management of General Holdings Corporation involves the effect that its decision will have on

a. one group as opposed to another.
b. the firm's competitors.
c. the government.
d. the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.

a. one group as opposed to another.

Congress enacts a law prohibiting toys made in China from being sold in the United States. The Hawaii state legislature enacts a law allowing the sale of Chinese-made toys. Hawaii's law will most likely be

a. rendered invalid under the supremacy clause.
b. rendered valid the free exercise clause.
c. struck down under the due process clause.
d. upheld under the commerce clause.

a. rendered invalid under the supremacy clause.

Congress enacts a law that sets out a rigorous medical-device premarket approval process for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to follow. The law includes a preemption provision. Joe is injured by a device that underwent the process and files a claim under New Hampshire state law to recover for the injury. The court will most likely rule that

a. Joe's state law claim preempts the federal law.
b. the federal law and state law claim are concurrent.
c. the federal and state law claim cancel each other out.
d. the federal law preempts Joe's state law claim.

d. the federal law preempts Joe's state law claim.

Congress enacts the Tight Money Act (TMA) of 2010 to ban "major busi¬ness entities" from making political contri¬bu¬tions that individuals can make. A court would likely hold the TMA to be

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.
b. constitutional under the First Amendment.
c. justified by the need to protect individual rights.
d. necessary to protect national interests.

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.

The Constitution provides that no person shall be deprived of "life, liberty, or property without due process of law." Under this clause, "persons" include

a. animals and other "beings in nature."
b. buildings and other "manmade creations."
c. corporations and other "legal persons."
d. none of the choices.

c. corporations and other "legal persons."

The Constitution sets out the authority and the limits of the branches of the government. The term checks and balances means that

a. Congress writes checks and the president balances the budget.
b. each branch of government has some power to limit the actions of the other branches.
c. each branch of government may exercise the authority of the other branches.
d. the president "checks" the courts, which "balance" the laws.

b. each branch of government has some power to limit the actions of the other branches.

Consumer Payments Processing Corporation (CPPC) and Mall Kiosk Company make a deal for CPPC's services, via e-records. Under the UETA, an e-record is considered received when

a. it enters the recipient's processing system in a readable form.
b. the recipient is aware of its receipt.
c. the recipient is aware that it has been sent.
d. it leaves the sender's control.

d. it leaves the sender's control.

A contract between Drill-Bit Sharpeners, Inc., and East Oil Mining Corporation contains a clause stating that any assignment is "void." This ordinarily prohibits

a. any assignment.
b. no assignment.
c. only an assignment of contract rights to personal services.
d. only an assignment that would change the obligor's risk.

a. any assignment.

A contract between E-Debits, Inc., and First Credit Corporation includes a provision excluding liability as a result of fraud. This provision is

a. enforceable because the parties are protected from liability.
b. enforceable because the parties consented to it.
c. enforceable if the parties have equal bargaining power.
d. not enforceable.

d. not enforceable.

A contract between Kim and Larry to lease real property contains an excul¬patory clause. This clause is

a. enforceable only if either party is in a business important to the pub¬lic interest.
b. enforceable only if the lease involves residential property.
c. generally enforceable as a matter of public policy.
d. generally unenforceable.

d. generally unenforceable.

A contract between Lou and Mike requires a transfer of stolen goods for counterfeit currency. This contract is

a. enforceable.
b. void.
c. voidable at the option of either party.
d. voidable at the option of the party having less bargaining power.

b. void.

Cook's Pantry Appliances, a retail store, must use reasonable care on its premises to warn its patrons of

a. all risks.
b. hidden risks.
c. obvious risks.
d. no risks.

b. hidden risks.

Cooper offers to sell Gable his sport utility vehicle (SUV) and says that it has never been in an accident. Relying on Cooper's statement, Gable buys the SUV. Later, when it develops mechanical problems, Gable can

a. not rescind the contract.
b. rescind the contract on the basis of fraud.
c. rescind the contract on the basis of mistake.
d. rescind the contract on the basis of puffery.

b. rescind the contract on the basis of fraud.

Cordial Drinks, Inc., markets alcoholic beverages. A federal regulation bans the disclosure of the alcohol content of liquor on Cordial's labels and those of other marketers. A court would likely hold this regulation to be

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.
b. constitutional under the First Amendment.
c. justified by the need to protect individual rights.
d. necessary to protect national interests.

a. an unconstitutional restriction of speech.

Corner Convenience Store (CCS) takes out a full-page ad in a local newspaper and runs a thirty-second commercial on a local television station, offering a reward for information lead¬ing to the apprehension of a certain criminal. CCS could normally terminate the offer by placing

a. a full-page ad in the local paper and a thirty-second commercial on the local station.
b. a notice in the "Legal Announcements" section of the paper.
c. a notice to the news departments of the local stations.
d. any, or none, of the choices.

a. a full-page ad in the local paper and a thirty-second commercial on the local station.

Cory enters into a contract with Dian to act as her personal sports trainer. If they later dispute the meaning, and the contract contains unclear terms, the rules of contract interpretation will give effect to

a. the parties' intent as expressed in their contract.
b. what the defendant claims was the parties' intent.
c. what the plaintiff claims was the parties' intent.
d. what the parties now agree they intended.

a. the parties' intent as expressed in their contract.

A court adjudicates Holly mentally incompetent and appoints a guardian. Holly subsequently signs a contract to sell her house. The contract is

a. enforceable if Holly comprehended the consequences.
b. enforceable if Holly knew she was entering into a contract.
c. enforceable if the house was entirely paid for.
d. void.

d. void.

Craig decides to sell his Double-D Ranch in an auction "without reserve." If Craig changes his mind at the auction, he can withdraw his property

a. only before the auctioneer announces that the ranch is sold.
b. only before the auctioneer delivers the deed to the buyer.
c. under no circumstances.
d. within thirty days after the auction.

c. under no circumstances.

Crater Tools Company may be subject to regulations issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Like other administrative agencies, the OSHA affects

a. almost every aspect of a business's operations.
b. almost no aspect of a business's operations.
c. a firm's capital structure and financing, but nothing else.
d. a firm's hiring and firing procedures, but nothing else.

a. almost every aspect of a business's operations.

Creekside Property Corporation enters into a contract with Downstream Management Associates to manage and maintain Creekside's apartment complex. Their contract provides that neither party can recover damages for a non-fraudulent or unintentional breach. This is

a. a limitation-of-liability clause.
b. an exculpatory clause.
c. an illegal clause.
d. a quasi contract.

a. a limitation-of-liability clause.

Crestview Properties. Inc., and Deft Investment Corporation enter into a con¬tract for a sale of land. To be enforceable, the contract must be in writing if the land is valued at

a. more than $500.
b. more than $5,000.
c. more than $50,000.
d. any price.

d. any price

Curt, a doctor, renders medical care to Dora, a minor. Happy for a success¬ful outcome, Dora buys and sends a gift to Curt, and hires the band Elation to perform at her next birthday celebration. Most likely to be considered a necessary is

a. the medical care.
b. the thank-you gift.
c. the band.
d. none of the choices.

a. the medical care.

Cut-Rate Construction Company (CCC) begins building a restaurant for Diners Restaurants, Inc., but after two months demands an extra $100,000. Diners agrees to pay. If CCC offers, as a reason for the extra $100,000, that extraordinary unforeseen difficulties will add consid¬erable cost to the project, the agreement is

a. enforceable as an accord and satisfaction.
b. enforceable because of unforeseen difficulties.
c. unenforceable as an illusory promise.
d. unenforceable due to the preexisting duty rule.

b. enforceable because of unforeseen difficulties.

Cut-Rate Construction Company (CCC) begins building a restaurant for Diners Restaurants, Inc., but after two months demands an extra $100,000. Diners agrees to pay. If CCC offers, as a reason for the extra $100,000, that ordinary business expenses have increased, the agree¬ment is

a. enforceable as an accord and satisfaction.
b. enforceable because of unforeseen difficulties.
c. unenforceable as an illusory promise.
d. unenforceable due to the preexisting duty rule.

d. unenforceable due to the preexisting duty rule.

Cut-Rate Construction Company (CCC) begins building a restaurant for Diners Restaurants, Inc., but after two months demands an extra $100,000. Diners agrees to pay.If CCC offers no reason for the extra $100,000, but says only that it will otherwise stop construction, the agreement is

a. enforceable as an accord and satisfaction.
b. enforceable because of unforeseen difficulties.
c. unenforceable as an illusory promise.
d. unenforceable due to the preexisting duty rule.

d. unenforceable due to the preexisting duty rule.

Dag and Enita are in an auto accident. Dag offers Enita $2,000 if she promises not to pursue her potential legal claim against him. Enita agrees. Later, Enita discovers that it will cost $1,500 to repair her car and $4,000 to cover her medical expenses for a latent injury. In Enita's suit against Dag to recover her repair and medical expenses, Enita will most likely recover

a. half the amount to pay those costs over what Dag already paid her.
b. nothing.
c. the estimated amount to pay those costs and any other liability.
d. the exact amount to pay those costs and no more.

b. nothing.

Dag and Enita are in an auto accident. Dag offers Enita $2,000 if she promises not to pursue her potential legal claim against him. Enita agrees. Later, Enita discovers that it will cost $1,500 to repair her car and $4,000 to cover her medical expenses for a latent injury. The agreement between Dag and Enita is

a. a covenant not to sue.
b. an accord and satisfaction.
c. a release.
d. promissory estoppel.

c. a release.

Dale files a suit against Eve, alleging that she used fraud to induce him to enter into a con¬tract with her. Proof of an injury is required

a. to recover damages.
b. to rescind the contract.
c. to undo Eve's influence.
d. under no circumstances.

a. to recover damages.

Dale signs a contract with Everbest Insurance Company that intentionally confers a benefit on Flo. Flo's rights under the contract will vest

a. automatically.
b. if she manifests assent to the contract or materially al¬ters her po¬si¬tion in justifiable reliance on it.
c. only if she manifests assent.
d. only if she materially alters her position in justifiable reliance.

b. if she manifests assent to the contract or materially al¬ters her po¬si¬tion in justifiable reliance on it.

Dante enters into a contract with Rosalinda, who does not have contractual ca¬pacity. Dante can enforce the contract if Rosalinda

a. does not choose to avoid the contract.
b. is a minor.
c. can obtain the funds to pay for the benefits of the contract.
d. is intoxicated or men¬tally incompetent.

a. does not choose to avoid the contract.

Dante, a popular performer, dies. His spouse Caitlin sells their house to Buck. Un¬known to Caitlin or Buck, in one of the closets is the mas¬ter recording of an unreleased album. With respect to this recording, Buck can

a. keep it because Caitlin should have known about it.
b. keep it because the sale of a house includes everything in it.
c. not keep it because there was no voluntary consent to its sale.
d. not keep it because the sale of a house includes nothing in it.

c. not keep it because there was no voluntary consent to its sale.

Daphne agrees to buy Eduardo's Chef's Table restaurant on the condi¬tion that Financial Credit Company approves the financing. This ap¬proval is

a. a concurrent condition.
b. a condition precedent.
c. a condition subsequent.
d. a condition conjectural.

b. a condition precedent.

Daphne, an accountant, uses undue influence to induce her client Emily to invest in Faux Plastico, Ltd., a business with little potential. When Emily learns the truth, she can

a. do nothing.
b. enforce the contract but not rescind it.
c. enforce the contract or rescind it.
d. rescind the contract but not enforce it.

c. enforce the contract or rescind it.

Darla sells a all-terrain, off-road vehicle to Esteban without disclosing that the odome¬ter, which reads 30,000 miles, was disconnected 50,000 miles ago. Darla is most likely liable for

a. duress.
b. fraud.
c. mistake.
d. nothing.

b. fraud.

Dave's Hobby Town and Eva's Yarn Shoppe are adjacent stores with adjoining parking lots. Dave offers Eva a discount on purchases from Dave's store if Eva will not tow the cars of Dave's customers who park in Eva's lot.

Dave's discount is legally sufficient consid¬eration

a. because it is a promise of something of value.
b. only if Dave adds a cash rebate.
c. only if Eva uses it.
d. under no circumstances.

a. because it is a promise of something of value.

Dave's Hobby Town and Eva's Yarn Shoppe are adjacent stores with adjoining parking lots. Dave offers Eva a discount on purchases from Dave's store if Eva will not tow the cars of Dave's customers who park in Eva's lot.

Eva's forbearance from towing is legally sufficient consid¬eration

a. because it is a promise of something of value.
b. only if Dave's customers park in Eva's lot.
c. only if Eva's customers cannot park in her lot because it is full.
d. under no circumstances.

a. because it is a promise of something of value.

Deb buys a song through eSongs, an online music vendor. Before completing the purchase and downloading the song, Deb must agree to a provision not to sell copies of the song. This provision is

a. a browse-wrap term.
b. a click-on agreement.
c. a shrink-wrap agreement.
d. none of the choices.

b. a click-on agreement.

Debit & Credit Accounting Services and Brickwork Construction Company negotiate a con¬tract. Terms in the contract that are the subject of separate negotiation will be con¬sidered subordinate to

a. standardized terms.
b. terms that can be understood only by lawyers and judges.
c. terms that are not negotiated separately.
d. none of the choices.

d. none of the choices.

Delia enters into, and fails to disaffirm soon after reaching the age of ma¬jority, a contract with Electronics Stores, Inc. (ESI). Later Delia attempts to disaffirm the contract. ESI files a suit against her. The court will most likely consider the contract ratified if it is

a. executed.
b. exculpatory.
c. disaffirmed.
d. rescinded.

a. executed.

DeLouse Plastics Corporation pays its executives an excessive amount relative to other employees and to what executives at competitive companies are paid. This is most likely to be challenged as

a. illegal and unethical.
b. illegal only.
c. neither illegal nor unethical.
d. unethical only.

d. unethical only.

Delta, Inc., agrees to assume a debt of Evenflo Company to First State Bank. The agreement is not in writing. To be enforceable, the promise must be for the benefit of

a. any party.
b. Delta.
c. Evenflo.
d. First State.

b. Delta.

Demi promises to buy a house from Caleb, who promises to vacate the prop¬erty on June 1. If these promises are in writing, they are most likely

a. enforceable.
b. unenforceable.
c. void.
d. voidable.

a. enforceable.

Desiree and Eduardo decide to wager, in violation of a state statute, on the out¬come of a soccer game. They each deposit money with Felipe, who agrees to pay the winner of the bet. Before the game begins, Eduardo tells Felipe that he has changed his mind about the bet. Eduardo can recover

a. the amount of his bet and the amount of Desiree's bet.
b. the amount of his bet minus Felipe's expenses.
c. the amount of his bet only.
d. nothing.

c. the amount of his bet only.

Development Associates (DA) agrees to buy five acres of land from Eastside Properties for $15,000. Eastside sells the acreage to Fealty Realty, and fails to go through with DA's deal on the agreed date, when the market price of the land is $17,000. DA may recover

a. $17,000.
b. $15,000.
c. $2,000.
d. $0.

c. $2,000

Dian, a clerk at an Entertainment Unlimited store, takes a DVD player from the store without permission. Dian is liable for

a. appropriation.
b. benefiting an employee.
c. conversion.
d. wrongful interference with a business relationship.

c. conversion.

Digital Architecture, Inc., enters into a contract to design robotic software for Chassis Assembly Corporation. The freedom to enter into contracts is

a. a fundamental public policy of the United States.
b. an ambiguous business goal that is irrelevant in terms of the law
c. a philosophical concept that underlies international law.
d. a principle that describes contracting parties' intent.

a. a fundamental public policy of the United States.

Dino and Elle engage in a transaction that involves e-documents. The E-SIGN Act applies if those documents include

a. a divorce decree or a prenuptial agreement.
b. a health-insurance termination.
c. an agreement subject to Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code.
d. an eviction or a foreclosure.

c. an agreement subject to Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code.

Dino hires Eve to perform at Dino's Club, but Eve later breaches the agreement to accept a higher-paying job at First Star Arena. Dino files a suit against Eve. The court will most likely

a. award damages to Dino.
b. cancel Dino and Eve's contract.
c. order Eve to perform the contract.
d. reform Dino and Eve's contract.

a. award damages to Dino.

Dinsmore Corporation employs Coolwater Cyberspace Security, Inc. to protect the integrity of Dinsmore's computer system. Coolwater assigns Brigit and each of Dinsmore's other authorized users an individualized password. A serious security problem would most likely exist if Brigit

a. does not change the password.
b. changes the password immediately.
c. changes the password on a regular basis.
d. changes the password at irregular intervals

a. does not change the password.

Dion, an accountant for Entertainment Sports, Inc., attempts to apply a duty-based approach to ethical reasoning in conflicts that occur on the job. This approach is based on the idea that a person must

a. achieve the greatest good for the most people.
b. avoid unethical behavior regardless of the consequences.
c. conform to society's ethical standards.
d. place his or her employer's interest first.

b. avoid unethical behavior regardless of the consequences.

Dirk, an employee of Ergonomic Elevators, Inc., pays Ferbie, an employee of Ergonomic's competitor G-Force Risers Company, for a secret G-Force pricing schedule. This is

a. an effective marketing strategy.
b. commercial bribery.
c. creative legal bookkeeping.
d. money laundering.

b. commercial bribery.

Dobry Die & Mold, Inc., enters into a contract with Chet's Refitting Service to fix Dobry's precisely engineered molding equipment. If Chet's delays the repair for five days, knowing that Dobry will lose a certain percentage of profit for the delay, Dobry might be awarded consequential damages to

a. establish, as a matter of principle, that Chet's acted wrongfully.
b. provide Dobry with funds for a foreseeable loss beyond the contract.
c. provide Dobry with funds for its loss of the bargain.
d. punish Chet's and set an example to deter others from similar acts.

b. provide Dobry with funds for a foreseeable loss beyond the contract.

Dom, a salesperson for Excel Autos, promises Fern that a certain car will give her a "smooth ride." Dom offers a test drive, which Fern de¬clines. She buys the car but soon realizes that its suspension is in poor condi¬tion. Fern

a. can rescind the contract on the ground of fraud.
b. can rescind the contract on the ground of misrepresentation.
c. can rescind the contract on the ground of mistake.
d. was not defrauded.

d. was not defrauded.

Dom, an EZ Baked Goods salesperson, follows Flora, a salesperson for Goody Pastries, Inc., as she attempts to make sales to food stores. Dom solicits each of Flora's customers. Dom is most likely liable for wrongful inter¬ference with

a. a bargaining relationship.
b. a business relationship.
c. a contractual relationship.
d. a customer relationship.

b. a business relationship.

Domino causes a disturbance at El Nino Cafe. He is arrested and charged with disorderly conduct, a misdemeanor. A misdemeanor is a crime punish¬able by

a. a fine only.
b. imprisonment up to one year.
c. imprisonment up to six months.
d. imprisonment up to ten days.

b. imprisonment up to one year.

Dot, a real estate agent, tells Elbert, a home seller, that her commission is 12 percent. Elbert agrees that Dot can sell his house but refuses to sign a contract unless the amount of the commission is reduced. After the house is sold, Elbert refuses to pay 12 percent. Dot is most likely to recover

a. nothing.
b. on a theory of an express contract.
c. on a theory of an implied-in-fact contract.
d. on a theory of quasi contract.

d. on a theory of quasi contract.

Doyle steals Carmen's computer and its software. This is computer crime in which the computer is

a. the object of the crime.
b. the subject of the crime.
c. the instrument of the crime.
d. irrelevant to the crime.

a. the object of the crime.

Drake pushes Evon into the path of an oncoming car driven by Flip. Gina tries to rescue Evon. Drake is liable for any injuries to

a. Evon and Flip but not Gina.
b. Evon and Gina but not Flip.
c. Evon, Flip, and Gina.
d. none of the parties.

c. Evon, Flip, and Gina.

Drew contracts to sell a residential duplex to Evan. The contract pro¬vides that if Drew does not close the deal by September 15, he must pay Evan one-half of the contract price. This provision is not enforceable be¬cause it is

a. a liquidated damages clause.
b. a mitigation clause.
c. a nominal damages clause.
d. a penalty clause.

d. a penalty clause.

Dru tells his Excel Company coworkers that Fiona, Excel's office manager, is stealing from their employer. The statement is defamatory only if

a. a coworker believes it.
b. Fiona feels as if she were falsely imprisoned.
c. the statement is true.
d. the statement is false.

d. the statement is false.

Dru, a U.S. citizen, is the owner of Egret, Inc. Egret's competitors include Feathered Friends Company (FFC), which is owned by Greg and Huey. The Bill of Rights embod¬ies a series of protections for Dru against types of interference by

a. FFC and its other competitors only.
b. FFC, Greg, Huey, others, and the government.
c. Greg, Huey, and other private individuals only.
d. the government only.

d. the government only.

Dudley, a minor who is under his parents' care and control, signs a contract to rent an apartment from Ewan for one year. Before the end of the term, Dudley moves out. Ewan sues for the rent for the rest of the term. Dudley can

a. avoid liability for the rent but not disaffirm the contract.
b. disaffirm the contract and avoid liability for the rent.
c. disaffirm the contract but not avoid liability for the rent.
d. not disaffirm the contract nor avoid liability for the rent.

b. disaffirm the contract and avoid liability for the rent.

During the trial phase of Fuel Corporation's suit against Gas Stations, Inc., their attorneys engage in voir dire. This is

a. the assessment of the arguments on the issues.
b. the determination of the issues to be argued.
c. the litigation of the issues and arguments.
d. the selection of jurors.

d. the selection of jurors.

Dwayne and Ewell enter into a contract for the design of an addition to Dwayne's house for which he agrees to pay Ewell. Ewell transfers his right to payment under the contract to Flex Construction Company. Flex is

a. a delegatee.
b. an assignee.
c. an obligee.
d. a prohibitee.

b. an assignee.

Dylan enters into a contract to manage the operations of Cash's account¬ing office for one year, renewable for subsequent one-year terms. If this contract is discharged like most contracts, it will be

a. canceled.
b. compromised.
c. altered.
d. performed.

d. performed.

Earl holds 1,000 pounds of perishable fruit in storage for Fresh Food Corpo¬ration. Fresh Food does not pay for the storage. Earl sells the fruit to Green Grocers, Inc. This sale represents

a. a breach of contract.
b. a mitigation of damages.
c. rescission and restitution.
d. specific performance.

b. a mitigation of damages.

Eden, the chief executive officer of Flo-Thru Piping Corporation, wants to en¬sure that Flo-Thru's activities are legal and ethical. The best course for Eden and Flo-Thru is to act in

a. good faith.
b. ignorance of the law.
c. regard for the firm's shareholders only.
d. their own self interest.

a. good faith.

Edie files a suit against Frank. If this suit is like most cases, it will be

a. dismissed during a trial.
b. dismissed or settled before a trial.
c. resolved only after a trial.
d. settled at a trial.

b. dismissed or settled before a trial.

Elin decides to try to sell her collection of celebrity memorabilia in an auction "with reserve." If Elin changes her mind, she can withdraw her collection

a. only before the auctioneer announces that the items are sold.
b. only before the auctioneer delivers the items to the buyers.
c. under no circumstances.
d. within thirty days after the auction.

a. only before the auctioneer announces that the items are sold.

Elisa steals Filbert's personal information from Filbert's computer. This is computer crime in which the computer is

a. the object of the crime.
b. the subject of the crime.
c. the instrument of the crime.
d. irrelevant to the crime.

b. the subject of the crime.

Elle buys a new textbook for $100 and a used car for $5,000, and signs a one-year lease for an apartment for $1,000 monthly rent to start at the beginning of the next month. The Statute of Frauds covers

a. the apartment lease, and the textbook and car purchases.
b. the apartment lease and the car purchase only.
c. the apartment lease only.
d. the textbook and car purchases only.

b. the apartment lease and the car purchase only.

Elle, a minor acting on her own, signs a contract to buy a horse from Field Equine Ranch. Later, Elle disaffirms the deal. Liability most likely rests with

a. Elle and her parents.
b. Elle only.
c. Elle's parents only.
d. neither Elle nor her parents.

d. neither Elle nor her parents.

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