Psychology Part 2

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What is a motive?

A stimulus that moves a person to benave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal.

The psychology of motivation deals with the ______________ of behavior.

whys

What are some biological needs people have that motivate them?

Oxygen and food

What are some psychological needs people have that motivate them?

Achievement, self esteem, & social approval

The psychology of emotion deals with the "why's" of behavior:

True

What are instincts?

Behavior patterns that are genetically transmitted from generation to generation

Do today's psychologists believe that motivation is driven by instincts?

no

People and animals experience a ____________ arising from a ___________ as an unpleasant ____________.

drive; need; tension

So according to this theory, people mainly try to reduce that _________.

drive

What is homeostasis?

The tendency to maintain the state of equilibrium, or balance

According to this theory people are driven by what kind of growth and fulfillment?

Personal growth and artistic fulfillment

What was Maslow's theory of needs?

that people strive to fulfill their capacity for self actualization.

What is self actualization?

the need to become what one believe she or she is capable of being

When can people achieve self actualization?

He believed that people begin to fulfill higher psychological needs, such as achievement, only after their basic survival needs, such as hunger, or thirst, have been met.

How do cultural experiences affect us?

even if basic drives such as hunger or thirst are inborn, cultural experiences and factors influence the behavior that people use to satisfy those drives.

The idea that people are motivated to reduce unwelcome tension or feelings is part of which theory on motivation?

c. Drive Reduction

What are stimulus motives?

Desires for stimulation

Describe the sensory deprivation experiment:

Students were placed in a dull room with out sensory stimulation and the students either fell asleep, got bored, or had hallucinations. Some of the students quit after the first day and others that completed the experiment reported ill feelings afterward

What was learned from the sensory deprivation experiment?

The experiment demonstrated the importance of sensory stimulation to human beings

Human beings and other organisms are motivated to reduce the tension or stimulation caused by biological drives such as hunger or thirst. The hungry person who has a bite to eat wants to reduce the feeling of being hungry.

However, we experience psychological needs as well as biological.

How do psychologists determine who is or is not a sensation seeker?

psychologists call those who are happiest when they are out engaging in physical activities sensation seekers

People who are driven to get ahead, to ___________ challenges, and to meet high personal ______________ of success are said to have high __________motivation.

tackle; standards; achievement

What are performance goals?

specific goals such as gaining admission to college, earning the approval of parents or teachers, or even avoiding criticism

What are learning goals?

learning for learning's sake is the most powerful motivator

How are these two types of goals slightly different?

Performace goals are reached in order to obtain a reward.

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards?

Extrinsic rewards include good grades, a good income, and respect from others. On the other hand, learning goals are usually satisfied by internal or intrinsic rewards, such as self satisfaction.

How do parents affect achievement motivation?

Their attitude affects motivation

In what ways to parents affect achievement motiation?

c. Parents who simply reward their children for good grades with toys or money do not push them towards achievement motivation. Parents who help set goals and are encouraging their children to do good work help with achievement motivation.

What is the definition of an emotion?

States of feelings

How do emotions trigger activity in the nervous system?

anxiety triggers activity of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. When people are anxious, their hearts race. They breathe rapidly, sweat heavily, and tense their muscles.

What are the three instinctive emotions John B Watson believed that all humans are born with?

Fear, rage, and love

According to this theory, emotions come in _____________, with one emotion being followed by its _________________.

pairs; opposite

People then try to maintain ___________________.

balance

Explain how in this theory there is a sensation followed by a behavior?

According to this view, when something happens to a person in a certain situation, the person quickly interprets the situation. The interpretation triggers body sensations that signal a feeling, or emotion. The emotion, in turn, triggers a behavior. For example, a person who is walking down the street and encounters a stray dog may sense that he or she is in danger. That person feels anxious (Body sensation) and quickly turns down the nearest side street to avoid the dog (behavior).

People's emotions ____________ rather than ___________ their behavioral reactions.

follow; cause

What are bodily response patterns?

Reactions such as fighting or fleeing

The Cannon Bard Theory: Emotions accompany the __________ responses that are _________ by an external stimulus.

bodily; aroused

A situation _______________ an external ___________________ that is processed in the brain.

triggers; stimulus

The brain then __________________ bodily changes and cognitive activity (The experience of the ___________________) simultaneously.

stimulates; emotion

What is the central question in this theory?

whether bodily responses and emotions do in fact occur at the same time

The theory that believes our thoughts and feelings come before behavior is the

a. Common sense approach

How do negative emotions negatively affect the body?

Heart disease, stroke, and diabetes

What kinds of things qualify as "toxic stress"?

chronic neglect, exposure to violence, or living alone with a parent suffering severe mental illness

What kinds of emotions and attitudes are qualified as emotional vitality and how do they impact the body?

A sense of enthusiasm, of hopefulness, of engagement in life, and the ability to face life's stresses with emotional balance- appears to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease

____________ cuts the risk of heart disease in half.

optimism

How do social ties affect lifelong health and habits?

Participants with fewer social ties were more than twice as likely to die over the nine-year follow up period

Emotional states such as optimism and happiness or anxiety and depression are in what ways impacted by nature and nurture?

What percentage of each plays a role? Kubzansky concedes that psy- chological states such as anxiety or depression—or happiness and opti- mism—are forged by both nature and nurture. "They are 40-50 percent heritable, which means you may be born with the genetic predisposition

How can we instill positive thinking and happiness in children, as suggested by Kubzansky?

with the help of parents, teachers, pediatri- cians, sports coaches, school counsel- ors, mental health professionals, and policy makers

How can "living in the moment" help people become happy?

Do you find this difficult to achieve? allows them to put down their burdens; As a highschool student their our many things to worry about: grades, college, occupation, friends, family, cool crowd, etc. so no this is not an easy task

Achievement refers to the _______________ and skills gained from experience.

knowledge

In your own words, how is achievement different from intelligence?

Achievement is experience and intelligence is the ability to learn

Intelligence can be defined as the ___________________to learn from experience, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with others.

ability

Which best describes the relationship between achievement and intelligence?

b. Achievement provides a basis for intelligence, which is the ability to think rationally and the ability to learn. Achievement focuses on things you know you can do, such as content areas like history or math.

Gardner's Theory of

Multiple Intelligences

Interpersonal (in touch with one's own __________feelings)

inner

Intrapersonal (sensitivity to ______________people's feelings)

other

Gardner refers to each of these as "an intelligence" because they are very different from one another. He also believes that each kind of intelligence is based in _________________areas of the brain.

different_

What kinds of occupations accompany each intelligence?

Visual/spatial: navigator, sculptor, architect; existentialist: philosopher, theorist; interpersonal: counselor, politician, salesperson; intrapersonal: researcher, novelist, entrepreneur; bodily/kinesthetic: athlete, firefighter, actor; musical/rhythmic: musician, composer, disk jockey; verbal/linguistic: journalist, teacher, lawyer; logical/mathematical: engineer, programmer, accountants; naturalist: environmentalist, farmer, botanist

Sternberg's _____ Theory

Triarchic

According to this theory, intelligence _________:

includes 3 abilities

What is analytic intelligence?

Enables us to solve problems

What is creative intelligence?

Deal with new situations

What is practical intelligence?

Makes it possible for us to perform everyday tasks

Provide examples of how you would use each and when: analytical:

math class on a math problem; creative intelligence when you must come up with an add design that will get you the most buyers; practical intelligence brushing your teeth

Determining the cause and effects of the American Revolution would be using which type of intelligence in Sternberg's model? b

. Analytic

Psychologist Daniel Goleman is interested in why smart people are not always as ________________as might be expected. He proposes yet another kind of intelligence: emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence, says Goleman, consists of five factors that are involved in success in school or on the job:

successful

Self _______________________ - the ability to recognize our own feelings.

awareness

Mood __________________________ - the ability to distract oneself from an uncomfortable feeling.

management

Self __________________________ - the ability to move ahead with confidence and enthusiasm.

motivation

Impulse ________________________ - the ability to delay pleasure until the task at hand has been accomplished.

_Control

People _______________________- the ability to empathize, understand, communicate, and cooperate with others.

_Skills

The Stanford - _____ Scale

Binet

What is a mental age?

Shows the intellectual level at which a child is functioning

What is a chronological age?

years

How does the test determine both?

For example, a child with an MA of six is functioning intellectually like a six year old, even if the child is not six years old. An MA of nine is above average for a seven year old. The MA of nine is below average for an 11 year old.

What does IQ stand for?

Intelligence Quotient

What is a normal IQ?

100

IQ is determined by dividing a person's mental age by their chronological age:

True

What is in the Wechsler test?

An intelligence test

What kinds of skills are tested?

Verbal skills, performance skills

List the ways in which the Wechsler scale is different from the Stanford Binet Test?

Does not use mental age, measures verbal and nonverbal abilities

How are they scored?

Wechsler: comparison of a person's answers with the answers of others in the same age group

Both the Stanford Binet and Weschler tests use the concept of Mental Age:

False

What does it mean for a test to be reliable?

consistent

Why is it ok for test results to not be "identical"?

Scores for the same person from different testing occasions may vary somewhat for a variety of reasons.

Before psychologists accept any kind of test it must meet two criteria:

they must be reliable and valid.

What is test re-test reliability?

is determined by comparing scores earned by the same person on the same test taken at different times.

What does validity mean?

it measures what it is supposed to measure

Why are intelligence tests considered valid?

They closely predict grades and job success

What do achievement tests measure?

Skills and knowledge

When do you take achievement tests?

Throughout elementary and middle school

When might a college student take an achievement test?

When they wish to graduate

Achievement tests measure

people's skills and the knowledge they have in specific

What is an aptitude test?

Measure more specific abilities or skills than intelligence tests but broader ones than achievement tests

What does the SAT stand for?

Scholastic Aptitude Test

When might you take an aptitude test?

Before getting into college

When might a college student take an aptitude test?

Before getting into medical school

Which describes the difference between achievement and aptitude tests?

c. Aptitude tests measure a narrow range of skills, typically specific to abilities in a given field. Achievement tests measure people's skills and knowledge they have acquired in a content area.

Define frequency distribution:

A way of arranging data to determine how often a certain piece of data occurs

What percentage of students would be expected to score between 90 and 110?

50%

Between 70 and 130?

95%

Central tendency was discussed in Unit 1. What is a definition of central tendency?

Central tendency is measures that describe and locate the centers values of the data.

Range-

the mathematical difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution

Standard Deviation-

how much any particular score is likely to vary from the mean

When the standard deviation is closest to __________ the data is most reliable.

zero

What is correlation?

Is a measure of the relationship between two variables

What does it mean when variables are positively correlated?

When an increase or decrease occurs and the same happens to the other

What does it mean when variables are negatively correlated?

When one variable decreases and the other increases or vice-versa

How do psychologists define personality?

As the patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another

The Trait Approach:
What is a trait?

An aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable

Gordon Allport catalogued how many descriptive words for a person's personality?

18,000

Allport assumed that traits can be ______________- and they are fixed in the nervous system.

inherited

He believed a person's behavior is a product of his or her combination of ____________________.

traits

Trait theorists have generally assumed that traits are somehow

fixed or unchanging.

The Five Factor Model :
What are the "big five"?

refers to recent research suggesting that there may be five basic personality factors: active, self expressive people who gain energy from others, emotional stability-reliable, composed, and rational, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience

Research has found that these five factors define personality structure in which cultures/countries?

American, German, Portuguese, Jewish, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese

How does society affect our personalities, according to this theory and its research?

Mature rather than be shaped by environmental conditions

Which best describes a trait?

c. An aspect of personality that is reasonably stable.

The Learning Approach : Behaviorism - John _________________ claimed that external forces not internal, such as _____________, shape a person's behavior.

Watson; traits

Watson discarded what kinds of ideas?

Personal freedom, choice, and self direction

What is socialization?

The process by which people learn the socially desirable behaviors of their particular culture and adopt them as part of their personalities

Social Learning Theory - these theorists focus on the importance of learning by _______________________ and the role of ________________ processes that produce individual differences.

observation; cognitive

In what ways to people learn by observation?

Reading, watching TV, and movies

The Learning Approach is different from the trait approach because

b. Learning theory suggests that we learn how to act from our environment and this shapes our personality.

What is self actualization?

Their full potential

How does this affect personality?

Conscious architects of our own personalities

Who was Carl Rogers?

Advocate of the humanistic approach

What is the self theory?

Sense of self

Self Concept and Congruence-

consistency between one's self concept and one's experience

Self Esteem and Positive Regard-

belief in oneself, or self respect

Congruence refers to:

c. The consistency between our self concept and the experiences we go through.

This approach focuses on the roles of ___________________, gender, and ________________ in the formation of personality.

ethnicity; culture

Explain how Individualism vs. Collectivism affects personality:

Individualists tend to define themselves in terms of their personal identities. Collectivists tend to define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong and often give priority to the goals of their group.

What does the western capitalist system and way of life foster in personalities?

Individualism

Americans are more likely to identify themselves with the group than their individual status, occupations, or roles:

False

Sociocultural Factors and the Self How does the self-esteem of white and African American girls demonstrate some complexities in culture and self-esteem?

It appears that African American girls are taught that there is nothing wrong with them if they do not match the ideals of the majority culture. They come to believe that if the world treats them negatively, it is because of prejudice, not because of who they really are or what they do. White girls, on the other hand, may be more likely to look inward and blame themselves for not attaining the unreachable ideal.

What is acculturation?

the process of adapting to a new or different culture

What is assimilation?

absorbed

What does research suggest about bicultural individuals and self esteem?

Have the highest self esteem

It has been found by researchers that bicultural individuals have very high self esteem:

True

This theory is focused on ______________ struggles.

inner

People are born with what kind of drives?

Biological drives: aggression, sex, and the need for superiority

Who was Sigmund Freud?

Trained as a physician

What is psychoanalysis?

Where people are encouraged to talk about anything that pops into their minds; "talking cure"

Sigmund Freud believed that the majority of people's thoughts, feelings, and emotions are housed in the unconscious mind.

True

What are personality tests used for?

To describe and measure various aspects of people's personalities

What are objective tests?

Standardized group of test items in the form of a questionaire

What does the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory look like?

(What type of questions, how is it scored, etc.) diagnose psychological problems; contains 567 items in a true false format; can be scored by hand, but generally scored with a computer. The computer generates reports by comparing the individuals scores to group norms stored in the memory.

How can this test detect disorders like schizophrenia or depression?

Organized into 10 clinical scales, up to 8 validity scales each diagnosing a psychological problem; the scales were created by interviewing people who had already been diagnosed with various psychological disorders

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