Article I describes what?
the structure of the legislative branch of government
a two-house legislature
Each state is represented by how many senators?
2 per state
25 years old, citizen of the US for at least 7 years, and must be a resident of the state they are representing
30 years old, citizen of the US for at least 9 years, must be a resident of the state they are representing
longest articles, 10 sections
provides for the direct elections of senators by voters.
senators are elected for?
6 year terms
HOR are elected for?
2 year terms
Number of voting HORs
the process of allotting congressional seats to each state following the decennial census according to their proportion of the population
a proposed law
the constitution gives congress its most important power:
the authorities to make laws and raise and spend revenues
powers of congress are found where?
Article 1, section 8
Number of voting senate members?
who deals with impeachment
who approves treaties
more centralized, more formal, stronger leadership, common people
less centralized, less formal; weaker leadership, elite
Emphasizes on tax and revenue policy, power distributed less evenly?
emphasizes foreign policy, power distributed more evenly?
census conducted by who?
Department of commerce
who deals with redistricting?
the power delegated to the HOR in the constitution to charge the president, vice-president, or other civil officers, including federal judges, with "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." This is the first step in the constitutional process of removing government officials from office
conducts impeachment trials, with a two-thirds yea cote being necessary before a federal official can be removed form office. Jury of 100 senators
better educated, richer, more male, and more white than the general population
already holding an office
the process of redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states, as well as population shifts within a state
the drawing of congressional districts to produce a particular electoral outcome without regard to the shape of the district
Wesberry v. Sanders
congressional as well as state legislative districts must be apportioned on the basis of population
Thornburg v. Gingles
purposeful gerrymandering of a congressional district to dilute minority strength is illegal under the Voting Rights Act of 1965
LULAC v. Perry
states may redistrict more than every ten years
majority party (Rep)
the political party in each house of Congress with the most members
minority party (Dem)
the political party in each house of Congress with the second most members
Speaker of the house
the only officer of the House of Representative specifically mentioned in the Constitution; the chamber's most powerful position; traditionally a member of the majority party
the head of the party controlling the most seats in the HOR of the Senate; is second in authority to the Speaker of the House and in the Senate is regarded as its most powerful member
the head of the party with the second number of elected representatives in the HOR or the Senate
party leader who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party, takes vote counts on key legislation, prepares summaries of bills, and acts as a communications link within a party
president pro tempore
the official chair of the Senate; usually the most senior member of the majority party
presiding officer of the senate?
the Vice president of the US
committee to which proposed bills are referred; continues from one Congress to the next. The first and last places to which most bills go
special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate
time of continuous service on a committee
committee chairs in the House are selected how?
interviewed by party leaders to ensure that candidates demonstrate loyalty to the party
Committee chairs in the Senate are selected how?
Article I, section 7
deals with the procedures by which Congress can make laws and raise revenues
Congress's Law making
only members of the House or Senate can formally submit a bill for congressional consideration
a formal way of halting Senate action on a bill by means of long speeches or unlimited debate
mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate; the only way to end a filibuster
who has authority over budget?
legislation that allows representatives to bring money and jobs to their districts in the form of public works programs, military bases, or other programs.
funds that an appropriations bill designates for specific projects within a state or congressional district
War Powers Act
passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
a process by which presidents, when selecting districts court judges, defer to the senators in whose state the vacancy occurs
the political condition in which different political parties control the presidency and Congress
the political condition in which the same political party controls the presidency and Congress
what are the congressional support agencies?
Congressional Research Service (CRS), Government Accountability Office (GAO), Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
how is the speaker of the house chosen?
a majority vote by HOR
an organization of people with similar policy goals that tries to influence the political process to try to achieve those goals.
the activities of a group or organization that seek to persuade political leaders to support the group's position