Type of openings along which weathering agents attack bedrock.
solution cavities, faults, joints, lava vesicles
The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is _____.
The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational action is called
The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscapes is _____.
Water penetrating into soil promotes chemical weathering by acting as a weak ____.
In percolating rainwater, dissolved gases and the decay products of local vegetation increase the water's capacity to ___.
drive chemical reactions
The major end product of chemical weathering is ______.
In frost wedging, the principal force is exerted against the _____ of the confining rock.
_______ might happen directly as the result of the removal of tan overlying weight from the landscape.
The peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock is _____.
One sub-surface material which intensifies the process of earthquakes and mass movement is _____.
In dry climates _____ is (are) a prevalent process(es).
In rock, _____ is another term for pressure release.
Clays which change to a near-liquid state as a result of sudden disturbance are _____ clays.
The most common oxidation effect in the lithosphere is ____.
The best example of a product of mass wasting is _____.
Like faults, a ____ is a separation in a rock body.
The rotting of rock by the various types of chemical weathering takes place best in ____.
Residual rock that has not experienced erosion is termed ______.
Creep associated with animals and resembling a faint network of trails is called
A slope collapse with a backward rotation is a ______.
Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and _____.
expands in volume
Salt wedging is of slight consequence in _____.
The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is _____.
A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called _____.
The land separating adjoining valleys is known as a(n) _____.
This drainage pattern looks like the veins on the underside of a leaf:
Streams which flow for only a part of the year are ____.
The final result of the classical theory of the geomorphic cycle concept is _____.
Which of the below is the major concept to which all the others are part of?
A) drainage basin
B) valley side
C) valley bottom
E) drainage divide
A) drainage basin
Branching channels that cross a delta are known as ____.
The process in whic small particles are moved along by streamflow or wind in a series of jumps or bounces is _____.
A typical drainage pattern on conic volcanic mountains would be ____.
In the system of stream orders, the smallest unit in the network is at the ____.
The total volume of flow in streams is termed ____.
The elevation limit of a stream downcutting on a land mass is called ______.
When a meandering stream is incised into a gradually rising crust or bedrock the result is a(n) _____.
A steep walled defile with a V-shaped profile and narrow valley floor would, according to the geomorphic cycle, be in the _____ stage.
In terms of erosion, a gulley is a larger example of a feature called a(n) ____.
Surface indicatior of turbulence in stream flows include eddies and _____.
An imaginary surface extending beneath the continents which limits how deep streams may cut is ____-.
Rivers downcutting into a land surface, in the absence of other forces, usually tend to erode a ____-shaped form.
The detachment and removal of fragmented rock material is known as ____.
The direct collision of a raindrop with the ground, laterally shifting fine particles a few millimeters, is _____.
Splash erosion ______.
Is described by all of the above
A _____ develops along a streambed containing bedrock of differential resistance.
The existence of a stream terrace is sure evidence of _____.
The eventual result of _____ is to reduce almost all stream-carried debris to very small silt particles.
Niagara Falls is a large waterfall on a river, so it can be considered as an example of ____.
Death Valley is below sea level. Therefore, in Death VAlley, base level is ______ ultimate base level.
Marking the outer edge of floodplains are landforms called ____.
On a meandering stream, maximum erosion takes place along the _____.
outer edge of the meanders
____ is a measure of the particle size a stream can transport.
Downcutting is usually most prominent along the _____ part of a stream valley.
As a steam-related measure, competence is expressed as a ____.
The chemical erosion of stream channels is known as ____-.
The general term applied to stream-deposited debris is ____-.
Describe a stream's capacity.
it varies tremendously from time to time, it depends mostly on fluctuations in the volume and velocity of flow, it is the potential load a stream can transport
Flow in a stream usually is fastest ____.
near the center and slightly below the surface
_____ is the counterpart of "scouring"?
Refers to all the phenomena connected with the origin and movement of molten rock
Davasian theory usually referred to as the _____.
Which of the following is closely associated with the former position of a river channel?
A) cutoff meanders
B) meander scars
C) oxbow lakes
D) oxbow swamps
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
When water-saturated soil or sediments become soft or fluid during the time of a strong earthquake
Niagra Falls were formed ____.
after the retreat of the Pleistocene ice sheets a few thousand years ago
Over time, what happened to Niagara Falls?
they have migrated several kilometers upstream
Uplift and rejuvenation are indicated by the presence of landforms know as ___.
An oxbow lake was formerly a _____.
Refers to the deformation of the earths crust
Running water is referred to as a(n) _____ process in terms of being a landform creator.
Which of the following correctly describes a stream's capacity?
It is correctly described by all the above
Explain causes of the peaks and valleys in the stream height graph.
Peaks represent a levee breaking and the valleys represent the flood plains full to capacity
What are the four types of erosion in order from slowest to fastest?
Creeps, Flows, Slides, Falls
What are the two types of surfaces?
Erosional (removed) & Depositional (building up)
Types of weathering
Physical (clastic) & Chemical (chemically precipitated)
What is significant of John Wesley Powell?
He came up with "ultimate base level" and mapped the grand canyon using a barometer
What is significant of William Morris Davis?
He came up with the geomorphic cycle of erosion using ages of youth, maturity, old age and, rejuvenation
He also came up with a formula that landforms result from:
Structure + Process + Time = Present Landscape
How do urbanization and agriculture play a role in increase flood frequency?
Agriculture contributes to erosion causing water to flow faster and the soil becomes impermeable causing the water to run on top of it instead of being absorbed. In urbanized areas you have concrete which is impermeable land so the water again cannot be absorbed so it flows on top.
What generalization can you make about the clast size of the sediments with increasing distance from the river channel?
Clast size of sediments will become smaller with the increasing distance from the river channel because the water slows down.