POLS1101-Final

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Quiz 1-3

Citizens or subjects of other countries who come to the United States to live or work are known as

Immigrants

A political system in which the state holds all power over the social order is

an authoritarian government.

The role of citizens is limited to choosing among competing leaders in the __________ theory of democracy.

Elite

______ refers to a particular view of how we ought to live our lives.

Social order

The key concept of the pluralist theory of democracy is

Groups

The two competing views of citizenship that exist today in the United States see humans acting out of

self-interest versus public good.

When those in government exercise power recognized by citizens as right and proper, they are exercising

Authority

Compared with the situation found in most countries, the range of the ideological spectrum in the United States is

narrower because of our shared political culture.

Individuals coming to the United States seeking asylum are known as

refugees

How do rules fit into the concept of "who gets what, and how?"

Rules can be thought of as the how.

Power is defined in your text as

the ability to get other people to do what you want.

The importance of political culture is that it

reduces conflict in society.

A set of beliefs about politics, the economy, and society that helps people make sense of their world is called

an ideology

James Madison thought that average citizens

were not likely to put the community's interests above their individual interests.

According to the text, "liberals" are people who believe in the widespread use of government power for

reducing economic inequality.

Americans' belief in freedom is defined as

freedom from restraint by the government.

Which of the following reflects the type of economic system found in the United States?

Regulated capitalism, in which business has substantial freedom from government interference, but the government does step in and regulate the economy to guarantee individual rights

Many European countries follow the theory of _____, which is a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and government that supports equality.

Social Democracy

The central democratic institution of the elite theory of democracy is

the electoral process.

What is the key difference between a citizen and a subject?

Citizens have rights as well as obligations, but subjects have only obligations

According to the social contract, what is the source of government's legitimacy?

Citizen consent

Individualism means or implies all of the following EXCEPT

what is good for the individual follows from what is good for society.

Social conservatives would agree with all of the following EXCEPT

a significant use of government power to affect the economy.

Why do many Americans find it difficult to identify themselves as conservatives or liberals?

Because they consider themselves liberal on some issues and conservative on other issues

The founders adopted a federal system

as a compromise between those who wanted a strong central government and those who wanted to retain strong state governments.

Early colonists came to America

with a wide range of economic and political agendas as well as religious and philosophical motives.

In the United States,

legislative, executive, and judicial powers are handled by separate institutions.

The founders hoped that the Senate would be ______ the House of Representatives.

more stable than

The Supreme Court has interpreted the ______ clause of the Constitution so broadly that there are very few restrictions on what Congress can do.

necessary and proper

The authors of your text suggest that Thomas Jefferson might have changed John Locke's argument for government to protect property to protection of "the pursuit of happiness" because

Jefferson was trying to gain the support of those who had little property to protect.

Article III of the Constitution

creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts.

According to the Federalists, the advantage of federalism over a confederation was that the former

divided power between the federal and state governments.

The Declaration of Independence reflects the political philosophy of

John Locke.

The significance of the Federalist Papers is that

without them the states might not have ratified the Constitution.

In Federalist No. 51, what government structure did James Madison recommend to ensure "ambition...be made to counteract ambition"?

Separation of powers among the branches of federal government

The constitutional safeguard that places legislative, executive, and judicial powers in different hands is called

separation of powers.

The delegate to the Constitutional Convention who had the greatest impact on the document was

James Madison.

The amendment process for the Constitution

was designed to allow growth and change but not to be too easy.

Groups of people motivated by a common interest, but one that differs from the interest of the country as a whole are known as

factions.

According to James Madison, factions are best controlled by the creation of a large republic because

no faction will be a majority, which means that no faction will be able to get its way.

Which of the following states were generally first to ratify the Constitution?

Small states

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention were

the most educated, powerful, and wealthy citizens of the new country.

In declaring all men to be equal, the authors of the Declaration of Independence followed Locke in all of the following EXCEPT

Locke condemned slavery.

The ultimate impact of the Revolutionary War on African Americans was that

many slaves earned freedom during the war, but in the aftermath of the war they did not find their lot greatly improved.

During the period of time during which the United States was governed by the Articles of Confederation, elites came to fear tyranny by

the people.

The central goal of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention was to

increase the power of the national government.

Under the three-fifths compromise,

each slave would count as three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation.

The founders intended the people to have influence over public policy through

the House of Representatives.

James Madison believed that factions were particularly dangerous to a republic because

they would likely pit the haves and have-nots against each other.

The necessary and proper clause of the U.S. Constitution states that

Congress has the power to pass laws that are necessary and proper for the carrying out of its other powers.

The theory that defines the state and national governments as essentially separate from each other and carrying out independent functions is

dual federalism.

A ______ system is one in which the central government ultimately has all of the power.

unitary

Confederal governments are usually found today

in multinational relationships.

McCulloch v. Maryland increased the power of the federal government by

interpreting the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution very broadly.

Gibbons v. Ogden increased the power of the national government by interpreting the

commerce clause of the Constitution very broadly.

In the early years of the New Deal, the Supreme Court ruled that many New Deal programs

were unconstitutional.

Federal funds provided to states for a broad purpose and unrestricted by detailed requirements are called

block grants.

The federal government has been able to use categorical grants to coerce states into doing what it wants most of the time because

states have become financially dependent on this aid.

The New Deal increased the scope of both national and state powers by

redefining the purpose of American government.

According to the "Consider the Source" feature in Chapter 3, what is the relationship between newspaper articles, editorials, and columns?

Newspaper articles are written to avoid bias, whereas editorials and columns make one-sided arguments.

The rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall contributed to enhancement of

the power of the national government.

The New Deal increased the power of the federal government in regard to

business and the economy.

Congress has been reluctant to use block grants to achieve policy goals because

they allow states to pursue their own goals rather than the federal government's goals.

The supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution states that

the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.

A major debate between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists concerned the

balance of power between the federal and state governments.

Federal orders that require states to operate and pay for programs created at the national level are called

unfunded mandates.

The fact that the federal government was able to get the states to adopt a uniform drinking age is an example of the

ability of the national government to use its funding authority to achieve indirectly what it cannot achieve directly.

The enumerated powers are

listed in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution.

The enumerated powers are important because they

showed the founders' commitment to creating a strong national government.

One of the great advantages of American federalism over the years has been the

flexibility it has provided the states when it comes to experimentation with public policy.

Although the Constitution provides for both national and state powers,

the balance between state and national powers has shifted considerably since 1787.

One reason for the growth of the national government's power and influence has been

heightened expectations and demands placed on the federal government.

The Supreme Court has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to

strike down racial segregation in the states.

What is the key difference between categorical grants and block grants?

Compared with categorical grants, block grants provide states with more leverage and power over how to spend grants-in-aid money.

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