A sound whose source is visible on the screen.
Examples of Diegetic Sound
Voices of actors speaking, Sounds made by objects in the story, Music coming from visible instruments
Sounds whose source is NOT visible on the screen.
Examples of Non-Diegetic Sound
Voice Over (VO), Sound Effects, Soundtrack
The on-set/location sound engineer responsible for the recording of production sound and any sync-related on-set sound mixing and playback.
Works under the supervision of the sound mixer in the recording of production sound, holding mic booms, placing mics, holding cables, and operating various recording devices.
Working in conjunction with the director, the sound designer supervises the mix of music, dialogue, ADR, foley, and sound effects.
Writes original music to be heard in the film, both diegetic and non-diegetic
Selects songs for the film in partnership with the Director and arranges for proper release for any music used.
An audio recording that is presented in a film to make a specific creative point and to enhance story.
ADR (Automated Dialogue Replacement)
the process in which voices are recorded in post production, replacing voices recorded during principle photography.
The recording of a location's ambient tones in order to allow for naturalistic sound after dubbing dialogue or sound effects in post-production.
ONLY audio recording during principle photography, intended for use as sound effects
The creation of everyday sound effects that are recorded in a foley studio to compliment or replace existing sounds.
Examples of Foley
Footsteps, Squeaking Doors, Thunder
Sounds that are used to create a particular environment.
Examples of Soundscape
Waves at the beach, Owl hooting at Night
In post production, various elements of different sound tracks are brought together to best support, enhance and express the meaning of the film.
The most typical 'directional' microphone used for capturing audio in film productions.
A long pole that allows precise positioning of the microphone above or below the actors, just out of the camera's frame.
The most common wired connection for audio recording devices.
Or 'microphone mixer', allows you to take inputs from various audio sources, combine and control them, and then output the signal to a recorder.
Analog Recording Device
Records audio directly to a tape; nearly obsolete.
Digital Recording Device
Records audio digitally; usually to a device with an internal hard drive or memory cards.
The act of monitoring the live audio recordings by listening and observing peak levels.
dBFS (Decibels Relative to Full Scale)
The measurement of audio peak levels.
Or 'Monophonic', describes a system where all audio is recorded through a single channel.
Or 'Stereophonic', describes a system where all audio is recorded through two independent channels; the left and right channels.
The art and science of motion-picture photography.
Director of Photography
The DP, or cinematographer, is the camera and lighting supervisor on the production
Duties of Director of Photography
Operation of cameras, Coordination of lighting, Create shot lists for each day of production in coordination with the Director
1st Assistant Camera
assists the DP in camera operation and maintenance and works in coordination with the script supervisor in naming, slating, and logging shots and reels/tapes.
Duties of 1st AC
Slating, loading of film or digital storage and logging, Focus marking and pulling, camera maintenance
AKA the lighting designer, the gaffer is the chief electrician who supervises set lighting in accordance with the requirements of the DP.
Duties of Gaffer
Lighting of sets and locations, Maintenance of lighting equipment, Generator operation
Works with the gaffer in setting and cutting lights, creating shadow effects for the set lighting and supervises camera movements according to the DP.
Duties of Key Grip
Shapes lighting, Supervises camera movements
The chief assistant to the gaffer in the lighting of sets and the operation of electrical systems.
The chief assistant to the key grip, aiding him/her in rigging, cutting light, and carrying out camera movements.
Considered the most basic unit of film grammar, the shot is the actual filming or recording of a scene.
The number of times a scene is shot.
A tool used before 'action' takes place to record the scene information as well as to sync audio. AKA Clapperboard
A close distanced shot.
A medium distanced shot.
A long distanced shot.
High Angle Shot
Location of camera above subject eye line.
Low Angle Shot
Location of camera below subject eye line.
Neutral Angle Shot
Location of camera at subjects eye line.
Point of View (POV) Shot
Location of camera from talents perspective.
Horizontal movement of a camera in a fixed position.
The movement of the camera closer or further away from a subject.
The movement of the camera from left to right, or right to left of a subject.
The movement of the camera up and down in height, typically on a crane. AKA a Jib Shot.
Content is recorded through a digital image sensor.
Formats of Digital
4K, HD, SD
RED & Alexa Cameras (4096 x 3112)
High Definition (1920 x 1080)
Standard Definition (720 x 480)
Content is recorded through actual film exposure.
Formats of Film
Hollywood Film Standard
The detail an image holds, typically measured in pixels Ex./ 1920 x 1080
Frames per Second (FPS)
The rate at which frames are recorded/displayed.
The image ratio of width and height. X:Y Relationship
4 : 3
16 : 9
Movie Theater Projection
2.39 :1 and 1.85 :1
An optical lens attached to either a digital or film camera body that captures imagery by exposing the film/digital sensor to a specified amount of light.
Consists of foreground, middle ground and background.
Refers to the overall sharpness of the 'point of interest' in an image.
Sharper point of interest
Out of Focus
Less Sharp point of interest
Depth of Field (DoF)
The area on the image plane that is 'in focus'.
Less 'in focus'
More 'in focus'
F-Stop AKA Aperture
Using the iris of the lens, F-Stop measures how much light is entering the camera.
less light exposure = deep DoF
more light exposure = shallow DoF
A fixed focal length lens, -typically a 'faster' lens (lower F-Stop)
A lens with the ability to change focal lengths , provides more versatility.
Main, hard light on object
Soft light that fills in shadows
Creates a more 3 Dimensional look
3 Point lighting system
comprised of Key Light, Fill Light, Back Light
Refers to the color hue , created by certain lighting conditions.
measurement unit for color temperature
The art and process of piecing together various shots into scene sequences which ultimately, when combined, creates a finished film.
works under the supervision of the director and producer to assemble the film.
Duties of the Editor
The assembly of the footage into successive cuts until a final cut is reached, Assist the DP with color correction and other post-production effects, The output of the final cut to several formats.
Works as an assistant to the editor, by logging and capturing footage and organizing/managing media.
Duties of Assistant Editor
Maintaining a system of backups, Assisting with multi-format output , Logging, capturing and organizing media.
The 'Classical Hollywood' style of editing; intended to establish a logical coherence of time and space between shots, suggesting that everything in the scene is physically continuous.
Types of Continuity Editing
Temporal Continuity and Spatial Continuity
All of the stories action and dialogue happen in one continuous linear sequence.
Examples of Temporal Continuity
Use of continuous diegetic sound, Matching of actions from shot to shot.
Continuity of space. The addition of cutting different location shots together in order to maintain logical coherence.
Example of Spatial Continuity
Use of Establishing Shots.
A series of short shots edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information Disregards spatial and temporal continuity editing
Filmmaker famous for use of Montages
The first 'cut' of the motion picture created by the Editor; Also referred to as the 'Rough Cut'.
The Director, working in collaboration with the Editor, makes changes to the Assembly Edit to best reflect the Director's vision.
Typically the editor works in collaboration with the Director and Producers of the film to reach 'picture lock'.
When all editing of the motion picture has been completed and approved.Once picture locked, the film then moves into the sound design, special effects and color correction processes of post production.
Film Editing Before Digital Software
A film negative was literally cut and pasted together to 'edit' the motion picture.
Non-Linear Editing System
Digital editing software designed to allow direct access to any video frame and allows for non-destructive 'cutting' of footage.
The recording of a full scene, from start to finish, that has all of the talent and action in one framed sequence.
A shot edited into a scene that differs from the master shot, but emphasizes certain aspects of the same action in the master shot to keep continuity.
The editing of sequences to establish action occurring at the same time, but in two different locations.
Two shots of the same subject, but in different locations, are cut together, making the subject seem to 'jump' in a discontinuous way.
An abrupt cut from one image to another with no transition, typically used to startle the audience.
The interruption of a continuous sequence by cutting in a view of something else, then typically cutting back to the original sequence.
A transition where one shot replaces another by traveling from one side of the frame to another, or by a special image.
The gradual fading transition from one image to another.
A dissolve transition from a blank image.
A technique of editing shots with short durations together, rarely having the same image on screen for long periods of time. Creates a fast pace (Action Films)
A technique that edits shots with long durations together, sparingly using cuts to another image. Creates a slow pace (Romantic Films)
shapes reality to fictional ends
Members of the Art Department
Production Designer ,Art Director ,Prop Master, Set Decorator,Key Makeup Artist, Key Hair Dresser, Costume/Wardrobe Designer, Set Costumer
Working under the supervision of the director and in coordination with the art director, the production designer develops, coordinates, facilitates, and oversees the design of the sets, whether on stage or practical locations.
Duties of Production Designer
Determine the visual look of all the visual elements in each shot Participation in location scouting, Design of sets, Supervision of set construction and dressing Coordination, via the art director, with the make up, wardrobe, and camera departments
Working under the supervision of the production designer, the art director develops, coordinates, facilitates, and oversees the overall design of the production.
Duties of the Art Director
Co-ordinate the work of the builders and strike art crew ,Co-ordinate with the on set dresser (the stand-by member of the art dept on set during production), Coordinate the work of the costume designer, production designer, and compositors with the DP and the director.
The prop master works in coordination with the art director, production designer, and DP to gather, maintain, and manage all the props for a production.
Duties of Prop Master
Seeking and obtaining props, Maintenance and management of props, continuity of props in conjunction with script supervisor
The set decorator works closely with the art director, production designer and DP to dress the sets.
Duties of Set Decorator
Painting, draping, furniture placement, arranging the set dressing on the sets ,Striking the set dressing from the sets and returning/disposing of it properly, Set Dressers, dress and maintain continuity of set dressing during principle photography.
Key Makeup Artist:
applies and maintains the cast's makeup.
Duties of Key Makeup Artist
Meeting actors during prep and consulting with director and production designer on character make-up design, Applying makeup to cast members, Maintaining actor's makeup during shooting, in coordination with the script supervisor
Key Hair Dresser
The key hairdresser dresses and maintains the cast's hair.
Duties of Key hair dresser
Meeting actors during prep and consulting with director and production designer on character hair design ,Dressing cast members hair ,Maintaining actor's hair during shooting, in coordination with the script supervisor
works under the supervision of the director and the art director to design, obtain, assemble, and maintain the costumes for a production.
Duties of Costume Designer
The development of costuming concepts and design of costumes, Coordination with the art director, production designer, and Director of Photography (DP), Obtaining all costume components, The final assembly of all costumes, Maintenance of all costumes
The set costumer works as an assistant to the costume designer, helping to assemble and maintain the costumes, and also managing and facilitating the use of the costumes during production.
Duties of Ser Costumer
Assist the costume designer in design, obtaining, and assembly of costumes, Organization, maintenance, security and management of costumes, Helping the actors change, cleaning of all costumes
An object used by actors in the story
The design and creation of a particular location
Draping, Furniture, Decor, etc. that dresses the set
The carefully designed clothing worn by actors
Dialogue, action and location
what is said
what is done
what is seen
highest paid screenwriter in the United States until the mid-1930s, and served as the Vice President of the Writer's Guild of America for years.
Two kinds of screenplays
Original and Adaptation
created from the mind of the writer.
inspiration taken expressly from another work
Things that have been adapted into screenplays
Comicbooks , Novels, Short Stories, Poems, Video Games, Twitter feeds, Board Games, Stage plays, Other movies
one page per one minute of screen time.
Length of first Hollywood screenplays
The person in control of/responsible for the creative vision of the film.
Duties of Director
Communication with the actors ,Deciding on the lists of shots necessary, Hiring/firing key crew positions, Approval of most/all creative elements of the film
(camera=pen) the theory that the director is the major creative force behind making a movie, even in the industrialist Hollywood setting
Origins of Auteur Theory
French Film Society, 1950's
Main Kinds of Directors
Writer/Director, Visionary, Obsessive, Actor's Director
"Sees" the movie in their head. They communicate by drawing examples of their ideas.
Examples of Visionary Directors
Tim Burton, Ridley Scott, Steven Soderberg
The Actor's Director
Someone who's sole focus is the performances of the cast. Sometimes, but not always an actor themselves.
Examples of Actor's Directors
Clint Eastwood & Jonathan Demme
often works material that is very close to them. They tend to focus on the "story" they are shooting more than anything else.
Examples of Writer/Directors
Woody Allen, Kevin Smith, & Quentin Tarantino
The Obsessive -
These directors are meticulous in their planning and visualizing of the film. No decision is too small for them to fret over.
Examples of Obsessive Director
Steven Spielberg, Wes Anderson & Stanley Kubrick