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Light Microscopy

Visible light penetrates an object and is focused by glass lenses to form an image on the retina or on film.

Electron Microscopy

uses electrons instead of light, the shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution

Transmission Electron Microscope

focuses a bem of electrons through a specimen. Mainly used to study the internal structure of cells

Scanning Electron Microscope

focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D.

Organelles

tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive

Cytosol

the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended

Prokaryotic Cells

Lack Nucleus, Lack various internal structures bound with phospholipid membranes, Are Small, Have a simple structure, Include Bacteria and Archaea

Eukaryotic Cells

Have Nucleus, Have internal membrane bound organelles, Are Larger, More Complex Structure.

Plasma Membrane

a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell

Nucleus

Contains DNA in Eukaryotes

Nuclear Envelope

encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm

Chromosomes

Condensed Chromatin.

Chromatin

genetic material within the cell, formed by DNA and proteins

Nucleolus

located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RAN (rRNA) synthesis

Ribosomes

particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein

ER

an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed

Rough ER

with ribosomes studding its surface

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes

Transport Vesicles

The Transport system of the cell, that regulates protein traffic and metabolic functions

Golgi Apparatus

Modifies products of the ER, Manufactures certain macromolecules, Sorts and Packages materials into transport vesicles.

Lysosomes

a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules

Vacuoles

Storage for food and water

Mitochondrion

sits of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that generates ATP

Chloroplast

sites of photosynthesis

Cristae

inner membrane of mitochondria

Thylakoids

membranous sacs, stacked to form grana

Grana

thylakoids that are stacked

Cyoskeleton

a network of fibers that extends throughout the cytoplasm

Motor Proteins

produce motility

Microtubules

hollow rods about 26 nm in diameter and about 200 nm to 25 microns long

Cilia

hairlike locomotor appendage

Flagella

tailike locomotor appendage

Centrioles

...

Microfilaments

actin filaments

Actin

built as a twisted double chain of actin subunits

Myosin

microfilaments that function in cellular motility use this protein.

Cytoplasmic Streaming

a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells

Cell Wall

an extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells

Plasmodesmata

channels that perforate cell walls

Tight Junctions

here, membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid.

Desmosomes

fasten cells together into strong sheets

Gap Junctions

provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

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