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increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product

catalyst

provides a standard of comparison for test results

control

biological catalyst; protein in nature

enzyme

substance on which a catalyst works

substrate

end product of proteins

amino acids

end product of carbohydrates

simple sugars

end product of fats

fatty acids and glycerol (monoglycerides)

used to test for protein hydrolysis, which was indicated by a yellow color

BAPNA

used to test for presence of starch, which was indicated by a blue-black color

Lugol's iodone (IKI)

used to test for the presence of fatty acids, which was evidenced by a color change from blue to pink

litmus

used to test for the presence of reducing sugars (maltose, sucrose, glucose) as indicated by a blue to green or orange color change

Benedict's solution

what produces secretin

intestinal mucosa

target organs and effects of secretin

stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich fluid; stimulates the liver to secrete bile

what produces gastrin

stomach cells

target organs and effects of gastrin

acts on stomach glands to increase their secretory activity (particularly of HCl)

what produces cholecystokinin

intestinal cells

target organs and effects of cholecystokinin

stimulates the release of enzymes from the pancreas, causes gallbladder contraction and inhibits gastric secretion

mechanism for monosaccharide absorption? where does it absorb to?

mostly active transport; blood

mechanism for fatty acid and glycerol absorption? where does it absorb to?

diffusion; mostly lymph, some blood

mechanism for absorption of amino acids? where does it absorb to?

active transport; blood

mechanism of water absorption? where does it absorb to?

osmosis (diffusion); blood

mechanism of Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ absorption? where do they absorb to?

Na+, Ca2+ active transport, Cl-diffusion; blood

organ producing salivary amylase?

salivary glands

site of action for salivary amylase?

oral cavity

substrate of salivary amylase?

starch

optimal pH for salivary amylase?

6.7 - 7.0

organ producing trypsin?

pancreas

site of action for trypsin?

small intestine

substrate of trypsin?

proteins

optical pH for trypsin?

8.0

organ producing lipase (pancreatic)

pancreas

site of action for pancreatic lipase

small intestine

substrate for pancreatic lipase

fats

optimal pH for pancreatic lipase?

7.4 - 8.0

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