Oceanography Exam 3

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Increased public awareness of the importance of wetlands in
southern California really began:

in the l970s.

At Malibu, the major concern over large amounts of water in a
short time is that it will:

cause weakening of the subsurface soil, leading to landslides

Recent statistics suggest that _____ of the nation's wetlands have
been either altered or destroyed within the last 100 years.

90%

What caused the Navy to become "good stewards" of the land at Point Mugu?

legislation came into effect that required more protective measures

The landslide threats at Malibu are currently being addressed in
the form of:

public awareness and education programs

Major fluctuations in sea level during recent geologic time is
blamed for increased coastal erosion at:

Malibu

The lagoon at Malibu is often contaminated by:

septic tank effluent

During heavy storms the sewage treatment system for Point Mugu
may overflow. At such times, the Navy directs that overflow:

into a lined pond

At Aliso Creek, the natural process of surface water percolation
and filtration through the soil has been interrupted by

road building and paving

The sand removed from the Ventura Marina navigation channel is
presently being:

transported to downcoast beaches

Enzymes are:

protein molecules that are organic catalysts

The oldest fossils of life on Earth date back approximately _________ years.

3.5 - 4 billion

Which of these is not one of the four major elements composing life?

calcium

The shark (fish), penguin (bird), dolphin (mammal), and ichthyosaur (reptile) all have a similar streamlined torpedo-like shape. This is a good example of:

convergent evolution

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are components of the ________ cycle.

carbon

Which of these forms of nitrogen is most abundant but least useful to most living things?

nitrogen gas, N2

DON and DOC are:

molecules dissolved in the ocean

Mass extinctions:

are quite rare, the fossil records indicates that about six have occurred

Among other things, calcium and silicates are used by marine organisms:

as a component of shells and skeletons

Which of these is not part of NASA's definition of life?

It has low entropy.

The open water over the continental shelf is classified as the ________ zone.

neritic

The average pH of seawater is approximately:

8

Compared to seawater, fresh water is:

hypotonic

Air pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. As you descend into the ocean the pressure will increase by one atmosphere with each ____ feet of depth.

33

Organisms that lack the ability to maintain a constant body temperature are:

ectothermic

The main inorganic nutrients needed by marine plants and phytoplankton are:

nitrate and phosphate

Organisms that live on, in, or closely associated with the bottom are called:

benthic

Which kingdon is always multicellular, autotrophic and eukaryotic?

Plantae

Animals with hemoglobin and a proliferation of elaborate tentacles and branhae are likely adapted to:

low oxygen

Which of these is true about the swim bladders of fishes?

They are primarily used to regulate buoyancy

Organisms that cannot manufacture their own food are called:

heterotrophs

Approximately ____ of marine primary production is carried out by phytoplankton.

90%

Generally speaking, about ____ of the energy in any lower trophic level is passed to the next higher level?

10%

Which of these marine communities has the highest annual rate of primary production?

coral reef

In a light/dark bottle experiment, the compensation depth is where:

total oxygen production in the light bottle is zero

Which of these is never present on seaweeds?

leaf

Which of these is primarily found in fresh water?

green algae

The spring phytoplankton bloom in temperate oceans is:

triggered by increasing light

Ocean primary production is actively researched for all these reasons except:

its importance in the hydrogen cycle

Mangroves are found:

along muddy tropical shores

During the oxygen revolution, the percentage of atmospheric oxygen
increased from:

1% to 20%

Two of our invertebrate phyla possess a number of similar characteristics: bilateral symmetry, obvious heads, well-developed nervous systems, and flow-through digestive tracts. Those two phyla are:

Mollusca and Annelida

To date, the best fossils of early marine life have been found in:

Burgess Shale

Sponges are considered to be the most primitive of animals because they:

have only a few types of cells

Which of these is not a basic chordate characteristic?

water-vascular system

Most echinoderms move using their:

water vascular system

The presence of areas of similarly adapted organisms along the
shore is called:

intertidal zonation

The flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) are considered to be advanced compared to sea anemones because they possess:

a rudimentary central nervous system

Which of these processes was made more efficient by the evolution of photosynthesis and the availability of free oxygen?

processing of food molecules and energy release

About _______ of all living and fossil animals are invertebrates.

90%

The swim bladder is an organ associated with:

buoyancy

How many phyla include at least some vertebrate animals?

1

Which of these groups includes the manta ray?

Chondrichthyes

The most primitive class of fishes is the:

Agnatha

Birds are most closely related to:

reptiles

The class Osteichthyes is distinguished from other fish groups by its:

bony skeleton

Which of these will come ashore to hunt?

marine crocodiles

Which of these is not a pinnaped?

sea otter

The marine mammals evolved from land ancestors about _______ years ago.

50 million

Which of these includes the largest number of species?

Osteichthyes

Tapeworms, zooxanthella, and pilot fish each have a________
relationship with another organism.

symbiotic

A ________ is sometimes called the "occupation" of a species in a community.

niche

Calcareous algae are significant members of the _______ community?

coral reef

Under which of the following conditions is a J-shaped growth curve most likely?

a population that is reproducing in the absence of limiting factors

Which of these is most likely to be euryhaline?

estuarine oysters

A climax community is the end result of ecological:

succession

Clear patterns of zonation would probably be most obvious in the
_______ community.

rocky intertidal

Animals such as barnacles and corals that live attached to the
bottom are called:

sessile

Daily vertical migration is most prominent in the:

deep scattering layer

The relationship between anemone fish and sea anemones is:

mutualism

An abundant metal dissolved in seawater and extracted by chemical
and electrical means is:

magnesium

Which of these is not a method of obtaining fresh water from seawater?

hydrolysis

The ____ was fished to the brink of economic extinction in 13 years.

orange roughy

Compared to land based agriculture, marine animals and plants
constitute about ___ of the human intake of protein worldwide.

4%

Plastic drift nets that are lost and continue to kill marine life
for decades are called:

ghost nets

The major mariculture species in the U.S.A. are:

shrimp and lobsters

Ranching is a form of mariculture in which the organisms are started as juveniles in pens, then released to the wild so they can be caught by traditional fisheries methods. Which of the following species is an ideal candidate for ranching?

salmon

Acyclovir comes from ____ and is used to treat ____ :

sponge; herpes

Mare Liberium, the treatise that forms the basis of contemporary laws of the sea, was composed by:

Hugo Grotius in 1604

A nation's exclusive economic zone extends out ___ nautical miles from its shoreline.

200

In addition to causing skin cancers in humans, overexposure to ultraviolet rays can cause:

eye cataracts

The group of pollutants which were Rachel Carson's target in the1960s were the:

synthetic pesticides

Biological amplification of DDT had what effect on brown pelicans in the early 1960s?

egg shells too thin

Which of these is not being blamed on the introduced Chinese mitten crab?

human illness from eating them

New and potentially threatening exotic species of organisms are being introduced into marine ecosystems from:

ship ballast water

At the present birth rate, about how many humans will join the world population in the next 10 years?

one billion

The United States generates about _________ of the planet's industry-related carbon dioxide.

22%

Combustion of fossil fuels for energy releases many gases into the atmosphere. Which of these is causing the most concern?

carbon dioxide

Fishermen squirt sodium cyanide over coral reefs to:

stun and collect aquarium fish

Eutrophication can lead to large oceanic phytoplankton blooms. When these "blooms" die and sink to the bottom, their decomposition can:

use up the oxygen needed by benthic organisms

The array of buoys extending across the tropical Pacific Ocean that monitor air and sea temperature and help forecast El Niño events is called:

TAO/TRITON

Which of these motivations seems least important to the oceanographers in episode 26.

monetary gains

Primary production for both reef-building corals and hydrothermal tube worms is greatly influenced by:

symbiosis

The similar shapes of dolphins, sharks, tunas and penguins is an example of:

convergent evolution

Which of these results from the divergence of tectonic plates?

Mid Atlantic Ridge

Which of these is not true of the Gulf Stream?

it is an eastern boundary current

The theory of evolution by natural selection and the Big Bang theory are considered to be theories because they are/were:

widely tested, supported by scientific evidence, and considered to be the best current explanation of a phenomenon

Each of these increases the concentration of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the ocean except:

primary production

Considering the entire open ocean away from shore, which of these is least variable?

salinity

Which of these environments would be considered low-nutrient, high-light, high- productivity?

coral reef

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