Ch 1-5 Project Set

Created by DrDavila Plus

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321 terms

integument

covering;
made of 2 parts:
cutaneous membrane, or skin,
& accessory structures

6 integument functions

1. cover & protect
2. maintain body temperature
3. produce Vitamin D upon UV-ray exposure
4. detects sensory information
5. nutrient storage (fat, glucose, water, salt)
6. excretes waste

3 skin layers

2 cutaneous layers:
epidermis [epithelial tissue] & dermis [connective]
1 underlying tissue:
subcutaneous tissue [connective];
aka hypodermis

epidermis

outer-most layer of skin;
epithelial tissue; has 5/4 layers or keratinocytes, macrophages, and melanocytes;

stratum corneum

outermost layer of epidermis; made of flattened, dead, keratinocytes; these cells slough off, mostly into bath or dust

keratinocyte

skin cell that produces keratin
(vast majority of skin cells)

keratin

hard, waterproof protein found in epidermis, hair, and nails;

stratum lucidum

epidermal layer deep to the s. corneum;
5th layer found only in thick skin on palmar & plantar regions

stratum granulosum

epidermal layer deep to the s. corneum/s. lucidum;
keratinization (cell hardening) occurs here

stratum spinosum

epidermal layer deep to the s. granulosum;
contains live keratinocytes and macrophages to defend from pathogens

stratum germinativum

deepest epidermal layer; aka stratum basale;
keratinocytes undergo contstant mitosis here; cells then ascend through the epidermal layers until sloughed; melanocytes found here;

melanin

pigment that determines skin color; protects skin from UltraViolet rays (from sun or lightbulbs); produced in melanocytes in s. germinativum;

melanocyte

melanin-producing cell found in s. germinativum;

hemoglobin

red-pigmented protein found in red blood cells; red when bound to O2; gives pink undertone in light-skinned people

urticaria

rash of itchy wheals (raised hives); an acute allergic reaction

pruritus

itchiness

erythema

redness of skin; no raised wheals;
often from injury, infection, and inflammation, or blushing

carotene

yellowish pigment found in epidermis

dermis

fibrous connective tissue deeper than epidermis; contains accessory structures of skin;
provides nutrients to epidermis

hair

column of dead, compacted keratinocytes produced in hair follicle; protects scalp and orifices; provides sensory information

hair follicle

tubelike pocket of epidermal cells that extends into dermis, where hair is produced

hair shaft

visible portion of hair

hair root

portion of hair inside the follicle below the epidermis

sebaceous gland

sebum (oil) gland of skin; often empties into hair follicle

ceruminous gland

found in external auditory canal; prodcues cerumen

cerumen

ear wax;
protects eardrum (eg, trauma, infection, and dehydration

sudoriferous gland

sweat gland; produces sweat to cool body via evaporation

subcutaneous layer

connective adipose tissue layer deep to dermis; connects dermis to underlying muscle tissue; insulates and cushions; aka hypodermis;
no major organs: IDEAL for INJECTIONS (Sub-Q injections)

skin sensory receptor

provide Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord) information from environment about touch & pressure, temperature, and pain

nail

sheet of dead, compacted keratinocytes produced in; nail root; protects fingertips

cuticle

superficial band of epidermis covering nail bed, made of keratinocytes

vitamin D

produced in skin upon UltraViolet radiation (light);
aka sunshine vitamin

vasodilation

blood vessels increase in size & bloodflow (eg, skin when body is hot); contributes to sweat & heat loss

vasoconstriction

blood vessels decrease in size & bloodflow (eg, skin when body is cold)

thin skin

skin type covering most of the body;
only has 4 layers, no s. lucidum

thick skin

skin type covering only on palmar & plantar regions;
has 5 layers, including s. lucidum

dermal papillae

folds, or ridges, of dermis into overlying epidermis;
contributes to fingerprints;
blood vessels and nerves inside;

4 tissue types

1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nervous

epithelial tissue

avascular cellular tissue that covers surface of body and lines internal organs;
cells are polar, attached to something, and regnerate when damaged

epithelial tissue functions

protects body, controls permeablity, senses environement, and secretes substances

germinative cell

stem cell, one which divides regularly

cell junction

form tight bonds with other cells or extracellular material;
3 types (strongest to weakest):
1. desmosomes
2. gap junctions
3. tight junctions

desmosome

large complex of molecules, which are strongest intercellular junction; anchors cell

epithelial classes

layers [simple or stratified] & shape [squamous, cuboidal, columnar, (transitional)]

simple

epithelium only 1-cell thick

stratified

epithelium more than 1-cell thick

squamous

flat, thin epithelial cell; looks "squashed" or like a fried egg

cuboidal

epithelial cells that look like cubes when cut

columnar

tall, slender epithelial cells

transitional

stratified epithelium with cells that stretch; ex, urinary bladder

exocrine gland

epithelial tissue that produces secretions onto epithelial surfaces

endocrine gland

epithelial tissue that releases hormones into blood

merocrine secretion

secretions released by vesicle exocytosis;
eg sweat

apocrine secretion

secretions released by shedding cytoplasm, or "pinching off top" of cell;
eg, milk

holocrine secretion

secretions released by cell bursting;
eg sebum

serous gland

secretes watery serous solution, used for lubrication (reduce friction)

mucous gland

produces thick, slippery mucous; also used for lubrication and as "fly paper" to catch debris

mixed gland

secretes both serous fluid & mucus

connective tissue

tissue with more matrix than cells; tissue characteristics depends on matrix; tissue with "more stuff than cells"

matrix

extracellular parts of connective tissues;
determines function of tissue;
"stuff outside connective cells";
eg, in bone: calcium phosphate, in blood: water, in adipose tissue: fat

connective tissue functions

support and protect (bone/cartilage)
transport materials (blood)
energy storage (adipose)
defense (lymph)

connective tissue types

connective tissue proper, ie loose & dense;
fluid connective tissues, ie blood & lymph
supportive connective tissues, bone & cartilage

connective tissue proper

loose & dense tissues comprise this class of connective tissue;
adipose, or fat, tissue is loose;
tendons & ligaments are dense

fluid connective tissue

blood & lymph comprise this class of connective tissue

supportive connective tissue

bone & cartilage comprise this class of connective tissue

connective tissue cell types

1. fibroblasts: form matrix
2. macrophages: devour pathogens
2. mast cells: release histamine (inflammation) and heparin (blood thinner)

collagen

strong, yet flexible protein; most-produced protein in body; found extensively in connective tissues (bone, skin, etc)

elastin

stretchy, but elastic, protein; found extensively in connective tissue (skin)

ground substance

clear, colorless, viscous (thick) substance;
fills spaces between cells;
slows pathogen movement

reticular fiber

thin collagen-like fiber; form supportive networks in a variety of tissues

adipose

fatty tissue; type of loose connective tissue that stores energy, insulates and cushions the body

tendon

dense connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones

ligament

dense connective tissue that attaches bones to bones

dermis

dense connective tissue deep to the epidermis (epithelial layer)

cartilage

strong connective tissue, more flexible than bone; found on bone ends, trachea, intervertebral discs, etc.

fibrocartilage

stongest cartilage type; reduce friction upon bone to bone contact; functions as protective padding; found between vertebrae (intervertebral discs) and pad the knee (meniscus)

elastic cartilage

most-flexible cartilage type; found in external ear (pinna) and top of larynx (epiglottis)

hyaline cartilage

"in-between strength" cartilage; more flexible than fibrocartilage, but stronger than elastic cartilage; found at the tips of bones

muscle tissue

tissue that contracts; produces force, movement, and heat; 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth

skeletal muscle

attached to skeleton;
moves body and creates most body heat;
voluntary;
striated (striped) in appearance

cardiac muscle

found in heart; moves blood;
involuntary; striated (striped) in appearance

smooth muscle

found in walls of tubular organs; involuntary; smooth (not striped) in appearance

nervous tissue

tissue made of neurons and neuroglia; receives sensory impulses (electrical signals) from the environment, analyzes the data (in brain/spinal cord), and directs motor output

neuron

specialized cell for electrical communication (aka, nerve impulses); basic building block of the nervous system; aka nerve cell

neuroglia

supporting cells of the nervous system; perform wide array of functions in brain/spinal cord; "nerve glue"

dendrite

long extensions of the cell membrane;
receive electrical impules from other neurons, sending info to the cell body

cell body

part of cell containing nucleus;
in neurons, this part summates ("adds up") electrical impulses arriving from dendrites

axon

long extension of neuron cell membrane that conveys electrical impulse away from cell body to another cell; "A"xons send impulses "A"way

synapse

where an axon communicates with a dendrite (or other cell) using electrical and chemical signals

cutaneous membrane

covers and protects body; aka skin

mucous membrane

lines cavities exposed to outside world; secretes protective, lubricating mucous; found in nose, lungs, intestines, etc

serous membrane

thin membrane covering internal body cavities; secretes serous fluid that keeps the membrane lubricated

pleura

serous membrane covering lungs and pleural cavity

pericardium

serous membrane lining the heart and the pericardial cavity abdominal organs and the abdominopelvic cavity; covers a "ton" of organs

peritoneum

serous membrane lining the abdominopelvic cavity and organs

synovial membrane

found in joint cavities; secretes "eggy" fluid that lubricates the joint

inflammation

tissure response to injury;
signs & symptoms: swelling, redness, heat, pain;
aka inflammatory response

infection

presnece of harmful pathogen

cancer rate

1 in 4 (25%) of people in US develop cancer;
#2 cause of death,
cigarette smoking causes ~450,000 deaths including 50,000 from secondhand smoke

cell

basic unit of life (of structure and function);
smallest living thing

cell theory

cells all:
1. make up all living things
2. are basic unit of life
3. come from another cell that divided
4. maintain homeostasis

cytology

science that investigates formation, structure, and function of cells

cell membrane

thin, flexible, phospholipid bilayer;
isolates inside of cell;
regulates what enters and exits cell;
senses environment;
supports sturcutres in and on cell

cytoplasm

watery solution (cytosol) plus organelles;
minerals, gases, and organic molecules are suspended and react/interact here;
found between cell membrane and nucleus

cytosol

watery-fluid portion of cytoplasm;
contains nutrients, ions (high K+ low Na+), and wastes

selectively-permeable

property of cell membranes: some substances pass through, others cannot

nucleus

region within the nuclear envelope containing chromosomes (DNA); resposible for mitosis / meiosis; "control center" of the cell

number of chromosomes

46, in humans

nucleolus

structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made

organelle

tiny cell structure, which perform specific cell function(s)

mitochondria

performs cellular respiration, which produces ATP (pure energy); "powerhouse" of the cell

Golgi apparatus

flatened sacs of membrane that modify, store, and route cell products; aka Golgi body

ribosome

small particle in cell that assembles proteins; made of RNA and protein

lysosome

oval membrane sacs, containing digestive enzymes

endoplasmic reticulum

network of membrane tubules; modifies proteins, synthesizes lipids, and transports them throughout cell

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

endoplasmic reticulum WITHOUT ribosomes attached

rough endoplasmic reticulum

endoplasmic reticulum WITH ribosomes attached

cilia

short, hair-like projections of cell membrane; move materials outside a cell: "cilia sweep snot"

flagella

long, tail-like projection of cell; provide motility (ie, moves cell); only in sperm (in humans)

mitosis

cell division into two nearly identical daughter cells; both cells contain 46 chromosomes

meiosis

sex-cell division; daughter cells contain only 23 chromosomes

diffusion

movement of molecules from highly concentrated area to less concentrated area; ex, Kool-Aid spreads out in water, CO2 and O2 diffuse out of and into blood

concentration gradient

difference between area of high concetration of a given molecule versus another area of lower concentration

osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; ex, water spreads into Kool-Aid

osmotic pressure

force of a concentration gradient of water;
force caused by movement of water from area of high concetration to low concetration

hydrostatic pressure

force needed to block osmosis;
eg, in body, heart provides this pressure

isotonic solution

solution whose solute concentration is equal to that inside a cell; thus, no osmosis

hypotonic solution

solution with less solutes than cell;
cell swells, due to osmosis

hypertonic solution

solution with more solutes than cell;
cell shrivels, due to osmosis

filtration

using pressure to force a solution through a filter; ex, blood pressure filters blood plasma in the kidneys

filter

allows some things to pass through, while prevent other things passage; ex, coffee filter, water filter

active transport

molecule movement requiring energy (ATP); usually moving molecules across cell membrane from low concentration to high concentration-against diffusion;
ex, Na+-K+ exchange pump, and amino acid absorption in small intestine

passive transport

type of molecular transport requiring no energy (ATP);
eg absorbing water

facilitated diffusion

passive movement of molecules across cell membranes through protein channels/carriers; requires no energy, diffusion provides the force; ex, glucose-transporters that allow glucose from the blood to enter cells

endocytosis

process by which cell takes in material by infolding the cell membrane: ex, phagocytosis and pinocytosis

phagocytosis

process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells; "cell eating"; white-blood cells, called phagocytes, engulf pathogens

pinocytosis

process by which certain cells engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid; "cell drinking"

exocytosis

materials are released from the cell

osmolarity

total number of particles in a solution;
(eg, sugar, Na+, Cl-, amino acids)

cotransport

moves 2+ substances in same direction at same time; performed by protein

countertransport

moves 2+ substances in opposite directions at same time; performed by protein

matter

anything that has mass (weight) and takes up space; made of atoms;
3 familiar forms: solid, liquid, gas;

energy

ability to put matter into motion (aka produce work); using energy releases heat

atom

smallest part of element that has the same chemical properties (ex, properties of rock, metal, etc.); made of nucleus & electron cloud;
contains 3 subatomic particles:
protons, neutrons, electrons

nucleus

central portion of atom where protons and neutrons are found

electron cloud

region around atomic nucleus where electrons are likely to be found

proton

positively charged subatomic particle found in nucleus; (p+); change the number of protons, change the element

neutron

uncharged subatomic particle found in nucleus; (n0); change the number of neutrons, get a radioactive isotope

nucleus

atom's central region, made up of protons and neutrons

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