L-PV and Thoracic Surgery CST practice

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The most common method of surgically removing thrombi is with an:

Embolectomy catheter

Atherosclerosis destroys the tunica ____ by penetrating it with lipids.

Intima

Vascular clamps are specifically designed to be easily applied and removed.

False

A metal, umbrella shaped filter is inserted into the ______ to prevent emboli from entering the pulmonary system.

Inferior vena cava

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called diastole.

True

The arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

True

______ is the removal of a fatty fibrotic plaque that develops in the intima layer of the arteries.

Endarterectomy

_______ us the insertion of an arterial catheter or stent into an artery to establish patency and normal blood flow.,

Transluminal angioplasty

Obstruction or stenosis of an artery commonly forms at the ______.

Bifurcations

The injection of contrast media into a selected artery and its branches to determine the exact location of strictures, occlusion, or malformation is called ______.

Angiography

What anatomical structures make up the peripheral vascular system?

Arteries, veins, and capillary networks

A/An ______ is any organic or inorganic material that blocks an artery.

Thrombus

The _____ syringe would be appropriate for testing a Fogarty-type embolectomy catheter with a balloon volume of 1 mL or less.

Tuberculin

The medical term that means "in its normal position" is _____.

in situ

A bifurcated graft is ________.

Y shaped

In situ saphenous vein bypass is a surgical alternative to using a ______ to bypass a diseased femoral artery.

Synthetic graft

Intravenous administration of thrombin can cause a/an _____.

Fatal embolus

All blood vessels have three layers: the tunica ______, or outside layer; the middle, or tunica media; and the inner, or tunica intima.

Adventia

The elastic nature of the arteries allows them to ___ during systole and ____ during diastole to maintain vascular pressure.

Contract; relax

Femorofemoral bypass is performed to bypass unilateral atherosclerotic disease in the _____ artery.

Iliac

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a condition in which a section of the abdominal aorta becomes ______.

thin and bulges

The greater saphenous vein is surgically removed to provide an autograft for ______.

Peripheral or coronary artery bypass

The largest vein of the body is the _____.

Vena cava

Following a carotid endarterectomy, once the arteriotomy is closed, the clamps are taken off the internal, external, and _____ carotid arteries, in that order.

Common

Outside of the body means ______.

Extracorporeally

A direct anastomosis between an artery and a vein is called a/an _____.

Arteriovenous fistula

A reduction in the patients total blood volume is called.

Hypovolemia

A blood clot, air, or organic material that is free flowing in the vascular system is known as ________.

Emboli

________ is administered to reverse the effects of systemic heparin.

Protamine sulfate

Ischemia of tissue may be caused by _______.

Loss of blood to the tissue

An incision made in the artery is called an _______.

Arteriotomy

Pulse volume recording (arterial plethysmography) requires ______ blood pressure cuffs readings.

three

An intraoperative vasospasm can be controlled by injections of ______.

Lidocaine

The surgical position of choice for a single lung transplant is:

Lateral

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition in which the subclavian vessels and the brachial plexus are compressed at the ______.

Apex of the thorax

A thymectomy is commonly performed for malignant tumors and occasionally ________.

Myasthenia gravis

The reason an inhaled foreign material is more likely to enter the right lung is because the right bronchus is _____ than the left.

straighter

_______ is the loss of elasticity and distension of the alveoli

Emphysema

An arterial blood gasses test assesses the arterial blood for ____.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels as well as pH

Decortication of the lung is the surgical removal of a portion of the _____.

parietal pleura

______ is generally used only for the removal of large tissue or a foreign body.

Rigid bronchoscopy

The surgical removal of a portion of the parietal pleura is called _____.

Decortication of the lung

Diffusion is the transfer of oxygen from the ______.

Alveoli in the lungs to the blood stream

When performing a thoracotomy, the edges of the wound are covered with laparotomy sponges to protect the wound edges from ______.

bruising

_______ is the increased rate of respiration that prevents elimination of carbon dioxide.

Hyperventilation

_______ requires 10-mm lenses in sizes 0 and 30 degrees.

Thoracoscopy

_______ is the movement and absorption of oxygen molecules into body tissue.

Perfusion

The procedure that removes an entire lung to debulk (reduce the size of) a malignant tumor is called a ______.

Pneumonectomy

A wedge resection of the lung is the removal of at least one lobe.

false

An obstruction in the pulmonary vascular system that may result in ischemia to that portion of the lung is called _______.

Pulmonary embolism

Flexible bronchoscopy is performed to examine the lower respiratory tract and to obtain biopsy specimens.

True

The arterial blood gasses (ABG's) test assesses arterial blood for oxygen and carbon dioxide levels as well as pH (acid based balance).

True

The lung is divided into anatomical regions. The right lung has ____ lobes and the left lung has ____ lobes.

Three; two

_____ is defined as difficulty in breathing.

Dyspnea

With a thoracotomy, the shoulder muscles are retracted using a _____.

scapular retractor

A pneumothorax is air in the chest cavity that prevents the lungs from expanding and may _______.

displace the mediastinal structures

Diffusion is the molecular passage of oxygen across the alveoli and into the blood stream.

True

During a double lung transplant, the surgeon may use a bilateral, sequential technique. This technique will ______.

Avoid the need for cardiopulmonary bypass

When the diaphragm ______, the potential space between the two peural membranes is decreased and air is pulled into airways and lungs.

contracts

Mediastinoscopy is endoscopic examination of the thoracic cavity.

false

Single lung transplantation is increasingly used as a way to _____.

maximize the allocation of donor lung organs

during a pulmonary function test, the total volume of air is exhaled after maximum inspiration. This is called ______

Vital capacity

The ______ begins at the larynx and branches into two main airways.

Trachea

The diaphragm is a sealed barrier between the ______ cavities.

Thoracic and abdominal

The patient is placed in a semi-fowler's position to perform a _____ bronchoscopy.

flexible

Bronchoscopy is the insertion of a flexible fiberoptic or rigid telescope into the _____.

trachea

______ is bloody sputum or bleeding arising from the respiratory tract.

hemoptysis

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition in which the subclavian vessels and the brachial plexus are compressed at the apex of the thorax.

True

The pleural space normally maintains a positive pressure in relation to atmospheric air and the alveoli.

False

The ______, nerves are carefully preserved during a pneumonectomy.

Vagus, left recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic

Hemothorax is the presence of air in the thoracic cavity or between the pleural sac and lungs.

False

The self-retaining retractor used during a femoral-popliteal bypass is:

Weitlander

What synthetic material used for grafts requires preclotting?

Dacron knit polyester

A diagnostic test that examines blood flow and metabolic function of the heart and brain is:

Positron emission tomography

The majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms begin where?

Below the renal arteries

A vascular clamp used for occluding peripheral vessels is the:

bulldog

What procedure is performed for chronic cerebral ischemia?

Carotid endarterectomy

The instrument commonly used to clamp the aorta during an abdominal aneurysmectomy is a:

satinsky

The instrument commonly used to remove plaque form the carotid during an endarterectomy is a:

freer elevator

The commonly used size of suture for peripheral vascular anastomosis of the popliteal artery is:

5-0

The rupturing of erythrocytes is called:

hemolysis

Ateriovenous (AV) fistula is preferred over an external shunt for long-term dialysis because of a decreased chance of:

Thrombosis

The movement of blood through a vessel can be assessed by a:

Doppler device

The agent used to flush an artery to prevent clotting is:

Heparin

Fatty deposits on the walls of arteries are called:

Atherosclerosis

The scissors commonly used to extend the arteriotomy during an endarterectomy is a:

Potts-Smith

The procedure most commonly performed for the excision of small, peripherally located lesions of the lung is called a:

Wedge resection

During a bronchoscopy, which solution is preferred for bronchial washing specimens?

Sterile saline

The pathology in which the subclavian artery is compressed resulting in severe ischemia of the arm is a type of:

Thoracic outlet syndrome

What instrument is a rib contractor?

Bailey

Removal of air and/or blood from the pleural cavity by means of an aspiration needle is called:

thoracentesis

A bronchoscopy procedure allows visualization of the:

bronchi

What size of trocar is commonly used during a thoracoscopy?

10mm

What procedure is the removal of an entire lung?

Pneumonectomy

Which node is an important site for metastasis from the lungs and is a frequent site for biopsy?

Scalene

A procedure performed in patients with empyema is called:

Pulmonary decortication

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